Production & Productivity: Part 4/12 of the 12 P’s–– A Guideline of Design for Architects and Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect #ilmaBlog #Architecture

A 12 part series on the 12 P’s Doctrine: A Guideline of Design for Architects & Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect; developed by Frank Cunha III, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

PART FOUR

Project Resource Allocation and Resource Management 

The resources of an organization consist of people, materials, equipment, knowledge and time. Organizations typically have limited resources; therefore, tradeoffs on what project resources are expended and when are made every day within organizations. A resource allocation plan is an important tool in effective management of scarce resources. The timing of the need of those resources can be and should be determined within the project schedules. A resource plan, which describes the type of resource needed and the timing of that need, is critical to effective resource management. As the project schedule changes, the resource plan must also be flexible enough to adjust as these changes occur.

Production – During Design

Construction drawings are produced by the design team, and go through several drafts during the design phase before the final draft becomes part of the contract, which is then sent out to be bid on by contractors. The winning contractor is bound by all of the contract documentation, including the construction drawings (click here for more information).

Construction Drawings:

  • Represent the building as a whole as designed
  • Are produced by the design team
  • In a traditional construction environment, are created before the project is bid on
  • Are official contract documents
  • Are subject to mark-ups, change orders, and redlining throughout the project

Shop Drawings:

  • Represent building components as designed
  • Are produced by the contractor and subcontractors
  • In a traditional construction environment, are created after the project is awarded and before construction begins
  • Are not usually official contract documents
  • May be subject to mark-ups, change orders, and redlining

As-Built Drawings:

  • Represent the building as a whole and all its components as actually constructed
  • Are produced by the contractor and subcontractors
  • Are produced after the project is complete
  • Are sometimes mandated by the contract but are not part of the contract documents
  • May be subject to change during later renovations, but represent the final documents upon completion of initial construction

Production – During Construction

Lean Project Delivery

  • Lean construction is a method of production aimed at reducing costs, materials, time and effort.
  • Minimize the bad and maximize the good.
  • The desired outcome would be to maximize the value and output of a project while minimizing wasteful aspects and time delay.
  • Beneficial for general and subcontractors
  • Communication drives the project
  • What goals should the project team be working toward?
  • What goals can be achieved reasonably?
  • What commitments has each last planner made?
  • Has each contractor or supplier met their schedule promises?
  • How has each company performed, and what could be changed or improved if any member of the project team fails to meet a milestone?

Prefabricated Construction

  • Material Management and Installation
  • Formal Quality Program
  • Efficient Coordination of Work
  • Diligent Supervision of Work
  • Standardized Internal Inspection and Tests
  • Third Party and Consultant Reviews
  • Improved Communications
  • Experienced Teams and Worker Skills
  • Quality Culture
  • Prefab rooms allow for simultaneous progress
  • Easy assembly for large projects
  • Streamlining onsite labor processes

Types of Prefab:

  • Panelized Wood Framing
  • Timber Framing
  • Concrete Systems
  • Steel Framing
  • Modular Systems

Benefits of Prefab

  • Eco-Friendly
  • Financial Savings
  • Consistent Quality
  • Flexibility
  • Reduced Site Disruption
  • Shorter Construction Time
  • Safety

Technology and Automation

Subscribe to our blog for updates on each of the 12 doctrines established by Frank CunhaIII, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

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Architecture of the People for the People: Part 3/12 of the 12 P’s–– A Guideline of Design for Architects and Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect #ilmaBlog #Architecture

A 12 part series on the 12 P’s Doctrine: A Guideline of Design for Architects & Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect; developed by Frank Cunha III, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

PART THREE

Architecture of the People for the People

Culture of Stakeholders: When project stakeholders do not share a common culture, project management must adapt its organizations and work processes to cope with cultural differences.

The following are three major aspects of cultural difference that can affect a project:

  • Communications
  • Negotiations
  • Decision making

Communication is perhaps the most visible manifestation of culture. Architects, owner representatives, project managers, and contractors often confront cultural differences in communication in language, context, and candor. Language is clearly the greatest barrier to communication. When project stakeholders do not share the same language, communication slows down and is often filtered to share only information that is deemed critical.

The barrier to communication can influence project execution where quick and accurate exchange of ideas and information is critical. The interpretation of information reflects the extent that context and candor influence cultural expressions of ideas and understanding of information. In some cultures, an affirmative answer to a question does not always mean yes. The cultural influence can create confusion on a project where project stakeholders represent more than one culture.

Some tips for effective communication

(based on the 10 Tips for Effective Communication by Liz Kingsnorth):

  1. An intention for connection.
  2. Listen more than you speak.
  3. Understand the other person first.
  4. Understand needs, wishes and values.
  5. Begin with empathy.
  6. Take responsibility for your feelings.
  7. Make requests that are practical, specific and positive.
  8. Use accurate, neutral descriptions.
  9. Be willing to hear “No”.
  10. Ways we communicate other than words.

Without the people on a project a great building will never be built.  We need to empathize with all the workers and consultants that help make a project a reality and see things from their perspective and find common ground to develop solutions that work for the overall good of the project. 

If you are dealing with toxic individuals consider the following advice:

  1. Set limits. Take it from me, toxic people do not do well with boundaries.
  2. Pick your battles wisely. It’s tricky to balance being cordial with not wanting to normalize someone’s emotionally abusive behavior.
  3. Recognize and distance yourself from their behavior.
  4. Focus on the positive.
  5. Utilize your support system.

More advice on tackling problematic individuals is available by clicking here.

The skills which are needed to take on task-focused team roles include:

  1. Organizing and Planning Skills. Being organized is essential to getting tasks done.
  2. Decision-Making.
  3. Problem-Solving.
  4. Communication Skills.
  5. Persuasion and Influencing Skills.
  6. Feedback Skills.
  7. Skills in Chairing Meetings.
  8. Conflict resolution.

Who is Going to Use the Architecture You Create?

Finally, and most importantly it is important to consider the occupants who will be using the space.  As most of the work I do is in the public realm, I always consider how best to create spaces that are accessible and inclusive to everyone.  It is important to always focus on the people who will be using the spaces that you design and create.

Hopefully, the analysis provided in this post will help you start to think about ways that working with others can help you build a strong team to help you accomplish your project goals.  Without people, architecture cannot be designed or constructed on a large scale.

Subscribe to our blog for updates on each of the 12 doctrines established by Frank CunhaIII, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

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The Principles of Architecture: Part 1/12 of the 12 P’s–– A Guideline of Design for Architects and Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect #ilmaBlog #Architecture

A 12 part series on the 12 P’s Doctrine: A Guideline of Design for Architects & Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect; developed by Frank Cunha III, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

PART ONE

First, we start with the solid foundation and the importance of “Principles” in the practice of Architecture.

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled “De Architectura.” The principles described in his book were later adopted by the Romans.

The Principles of Architecture

For someone to begin to think like an Architect or become an Architect there must be some knowledge of the principles of Architecture.  The knowledge gained is not something that can be grasped in a course or in one year, but it is something that requires a life time.  That is why an Architecture office is called a practice because the architects are practicing a craft.  There is so much to learn about so many different things.  Alas, we must start someplace and start building a solid foundation of knowledge about the topic we love.  As we learn, make (small) mistakes and adjustments we are able to hone our craft and get better with time and experience.  Having a solid foundation of knowledge and precedents will help you become a better designer.

Vitruvius’ discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous Renaissance drawing by Leonardo da Vinci of Vitruvian Man.

It has been generally assumed that a complete theory of architecture is always concerned essentially in some way or another with these three interrelated terms, which, in Marcus Vitruvius Pollio’s Latin text (De Architectura (On Architecture), a handbook for Roman architects), are given as: 

  • Firmatis (Durability) – It should stand up robustly and remain in good condition.
  • Utilitas (Utility) – It should be useful and function well for the people using it.
  • Venustatis (Beauty) – It should delight people and raise their spirits.

Nevertheless, a number of influential theorists after 1750 sought to make modifications to this traditional triad.  Architects will always tend to argue, evolve, adapt and create more concepts and principles, however,  these fundamental themes are a great starting point to start to build knowledge.

Other concepts to consider as guiding principles of good architectural design:

  • BALANCE – Balance in design is similar to balance in physics. A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge. Balance provides stability and structure to a design. It’s the weight distributed in the design by the placement of your elements.
  • PROXIMITY – Proximity creates relationship between elements. It provides a focal point. Proximity doesn’t mean that elements have to be placed together, it means they should be visually connected in some way.
  • ALIGNMENT – Allows us to create order and organization. Aligning elements allows them to create a visual connection with each other.
  • REPETITION – Repetition strengthens a design by tying together individual elements. It helps to create association and consistency. Repetition can create rhythm (a feeling of organized movement).
  • CONTRAST – Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements (opposite colors on the color wheel, or value light / dark, or direction – horizontal / vertical). Contrast allows us to emphasize or highlight key elements in your design.
  • SPACE – Space in art refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within elements. Both positive and negative space are important factors to be considered in every design.

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We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook