What Will Higher Education Look Like 5, 10 or 20 Years From Now? Some Ways Colleges Can Reinvent Themselves #iLMA #eMBA #Innovation #Technology #Planning #Design #HigherEducation #HigherEd2030 #University #ArchitectPosted: April 16, 2019
Change is a natural and expected part of running a successful organization. Whether big or small, strategic pivots need to be carefully planned and well-timed. But, how do you know when your organization is ready to evolve to its next phase? Anyone that listens, watches, or reads the news knows about the rising cost of higher education and the increasing debt that education is putting on students and alumni and their families.
At a time when education is most important to keep up with increasing technological changes, institutions need to pivot or face imminent doom in an ever increasing competitive environment. Competition can come from startups or external factors in the higher education market therefore it is increasingly necessary for institutions of higher learning to take a different approach to their business operations.
This post will focus on:
- Current Trends
- Demographic Shifts
- Future of Higher Education (and impacts on University Facilities & Management)
- Changing Assumptions
- Implications for the Physical Campus
- Changing Trajectory
- More Trends in Higher Education (Towards 2030)
- Driving Technologies
- External Forces
- Online education[i] has become an increasingly accepted option, especially when “stackable” into degrees.
- Competency-based education lowers costs and reduces completion time for students.
- Income Share Agreements[ii] help students reduce the risk associated with student loans.
- Online Program Manager organizations benefit both universities and nontraditional, working-adult students.
- Enterprise training companies are filling the skills gap by working directly with employers.
- Pathway programs facilitate increasing transnational education[iii], which serves as an additional revenue stream for universities.
According to data from the National Clearinghouse and the Department of Education[iv]:
- The Average Age of a College/University Student Hovers Around Twenty-Seven (Though That Is Decreasing as The Economy Heats Up)
- 38% of Students Who Enrolled In 2011 Transferred Credits Between Different Institutions At Least Once Within Six Years.
- 38% of Students Are Enrolled Part-Time.
- 64% of Students Are Working Either Full-Time or Part-Time.
- 28% of Students Have Children of Their Own or Care For Dependent Family Members.
- 32% of Students Are from Low-Income Families.
- The Secondary Education Experience Has an Increasingly High Variation, Resulting In Students Whose Preparation For College-Level Work Varies Greatly.
Future of Higher Education (and impacts on University Facilities & Management)
The future of higher education depends on innovation.
University leaders who would risk dual transformation are required to exercise full commitment to multiple, potentially conflicting visions of the future. They undoubtedly confront skepticism, resistance, and inertia, which may sway them from pursuing overdue reforms.[v]
Change is upon us.
“All universities are very much struggling to answer the question of: What does [digitization[vi]] mean, and as technology rapidly changes, how can we leverage it?” . . . . Colleges afraid of asking that question do so at their own peril.”[vii]James Soto Antony, the director of the higher-education program at Harvard’s graduate school of education.
Until recently the need for a physical campus was based on several assumptions:
- Physical Class Time Was Required
- Meaningful Exchanges Occurred Face to Face
- The Value of an Institution Was Tied to a Specific Geography
- Books Were on Paper
- An Undergraduate Degree Required Eight Semesters
- Research Required Specialized Locations
- Interactions Among Students and Faculty Were Synchronous
Implications for the Physical Campus
- Learning – Course by course, pedagogy is being rethought to exploit the flexibility and placelessness of digital formats while maximizing the value of class time.
- Libraries – Libraries are finding the need to provide more usable space for students and faculty. Whether engaged in study, research or course projects, the campus community continues to migrate back to the library.
- Offices – While the rest of North America has moved to mobile devices and shared workspaces, academic organizations tend to be locked into the private, fixed office arrangement of an earlier era – little changed from a time without web browsers and cell phones.
- Digital Visible – From an institutional perspective, many of the implications of digital transformation are difficult to see, lost in a thicket of business issues presenting themselves with increasing urgency.
University presidents and provosts are always faced with the choice of staying the course or modifying the trajectory of their institutions. Due to failing business models, rapidly evolving digital competition and declining public support, the stakes are rising. All should be asking how they should think about the campus built for the 21st century.[viii] J. Michael Haggans[ix] makes the following recommendations:
- Build no net additional square feet
- Upgrade the best; get rid of the rest
- Manage space and time; rethink capacity
- Right-size the whole
- Take sustainable action
- Make campus matter
More Trends in Higher Education (Towards 2030)
- The Rise of The Mega-University[x]
- ; Public Private Partnerships (P3’s) Procurement Procedures Will Become More Prevalent
- More Colleges Will Adopt Test-Optional Admissions
- Social Mobility Will Matter More in College Rankings
- Urban Colleges Will Expand[xi] — But Carefully
- Financial Crunches Will Force More Colleges to Merge
- The Traditional Textbook Will Be Hard to Find; Free and Open Textbooks
- More Unbundling and Micro-Credentials
- Continued Focus on Accelerating Mobile Apps
- Re-Imagining Physical Campus Space in Response to New Teaching Delivery Methods
- Transforming the Campus into A Strategic Asset with Technology
- Education Facilities Become Environmental Innovators
- Ethics and Inclusion: Designing for The AI Future We Want to Live In
- Visibility (Transparency) And Connectedness
- Sustainability from Multiple Perspectives
- Better Customer Experiences with The Digital Supply Chain
- Individualized Learning Design, Personalized Adaptive Learning
- Stackable Learning Accreditation
- Increased Personalization: More Competency-Based Education They’ll Allow Students to Master A Skill or Competency at Their Own Pace.
- Adaptation to Workplace Needs They’ll Adapt Coursework to Meet Employer Needs for Workforce Expertise
- Greater Affordability and Accessibility They’ll Position Educational Programs to Support Greater Availability.
- More Hybrid Degrees[xii]
- More Certificates and Badges, For Example: Micro-Certificates, Offer Shorter, More Compact Programs to Provide Needed Knowledge and Skills Fast[xiii]
- Increased Sustainable Facilities – Environmental Issues Will Become Even More Important Due to Regulations and Social Awareness; Reduced Energy Costs, Water Conservation, Less Waste
- Health & Wellness – Physical, Spiritual and Metal Wellbeing
- Diversity and Inclusion Will Increase
- Rise of The Micro-Campus[xiv] And Shared Campuses[xv]
- E-Advising to Help Students Graduate
- Evidence-Based Pedagogy
- The Decline of The Lone-Eagle Teaching Approach (More Collaboration)
- Optimized Class Time (70% Online, 30% Face to Face)
- Easier Educational Transitions
- Fewer Large Lecture Classes
- Increased Competency-Based and Prior-Learning Credits (Credit for Moocs or From “Real World” Experience)[xvi]
- Data-Driven Instruction
- Aggressive Pursuit of New Revenue
- Online and Low-Residency Degrees at Flagships
- Deliberate Innovation, Lifetime Education[xvii]
- The Architecture of The Residential Campus Will Evolve to Support the Future.
- Spaces Will Be Upgraded to Try to Keep Up with Changes That Would Build In Heavy Online Usage.
- Spaces Will Be Transformed and Likely Resemble Large Centralized, Integrated Laboratory Type Spaces.
- Living-Learning Spaces in Combination Will Grow, But On Some Campuses, Perhaps Not In The Traditional Way That We Have Thought About Living-Learning To Date.
- Emerging Technologies – Such as Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, And Artificial Intelligence – Will Eventually Shape What the Physical Campus Of The Future Will Look Like, But Not Replace It.[xviii]
- Mobile Digital Transformation[xix]
- Smart Buildings and Smart Cities[xx]
- Internet of Things
- Artificial Intelligence (AI), Including Natural Language Processing
- Automation (Maintenance and Transportation Vehicles, Instructors, What Else?)
- Virtual Experience Labs, Including: Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality Learning, And Robotic Telepresence
- More Technology Instruction and Curricula Will Feature Digital Tools and Media Even More Prominently
- New Frontiers For E-Learning, For Example, Blurred Modalities (Expect Online and Traditional Face-To-Face Learning to Merge)[xxi]
- Blending the Traditional; The Internet Will Play Bigger Role in Learning
- Big Data: Colleges Will Hone Data Use to Improve Outcomes
- [xxii]: Corporate Learning Is A Freshly Lucrative Market
- Students and Families Will Focus More on College Return On Investment, Affordability And Student Loan Debt
- Greater Accountability; Schools will be more accountable to students and graduates
- Labor Market Shifts and the Rise of Automation
- Economic Shifts and Moves Toward Emerging Markets
- Growing Disconnect Between Employer Demands and College Experience
- The Growth in Urbanization and A Shift Toward Cities
- Restricted Immigration Policies and Student Mobility
- Lack of Supply but Growth in Demand
- The Rise in Non-Traditional Students
- Dwindling Budgets for Institutions[xxiv]
- Complex Thinking Required Will Seek to Be Vehicles of Societal Transformation, Preparing Students to Solve Complex Global Issues
[i] Online education is a flexible instructional delivery system that encompasses any kind of learning that takes place via the Internet. The quantity of distance learning and online degrees in most disciplines is large and increasing rapidly.
[ii] An Income Share Agreement (or ISA) is a financial structure in which an individual or organization provides something of value (often a fixed amount of money) to a recipient who, in exchange, agrees to pay back a percentage of their income for a fixed number of years.
[iii] Transnational education (TNE) is education delivered in a country other than the country in which the awarding institution is based, i.e., students based in country Y studying for a degree from a university in country Z.
[iv] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://er.educause.edu/articles/2019/3/changing-demographics-and-digital-transformation
[v]Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://ssir.org/articles/entry/design_thinking_for_higher_education
[vi] Digitization is the process of changing from analog to digital form.
[vii] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://qz.com/1070119/the-future-of-the-university-is-in-the-air-and-in-the-cloud
[viii] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: http://c21u.gatech.edu/blog/future-campus-digital-world
[ix] Michael Haggans is a Visiting Scholar in the College of Design at the University of Minnesota and Visiting Professor in the Center for 21st Century Universities at Georgia Institute of Technology. He is a licensed architect with a Masters of Architecture from the State University of New York at Buffalo. He has led architectural practices serving campuses in the US and Canada, and was University Architect for the University of Missouri System and University of Arizona.
[x] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.chronicle.com/interactives/Trend19-MegaU-Main
[xi] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.lincolninst.edu/sites/default/files/pubfiles/1285_wiewel_final.pdf
[xii] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.fastcompany.com/3046299/this-is-the-future-of-college
[xiii] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.govtech.com/education/higher-ed/Why-Micro-Credentials-Universities.html
[xv] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://evolllution.com/revenue-streams/global_learning/a-new-global-model-the-micro-campus
[xvi] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.chronicle.com/article/The-Future-Is-Now-15/140479
[xvii] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://evolllution.com/revenue-streams/market_opportunities/looking-to-2040-anticipating-the-future-of-higher-education
[xviii] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.eypae.com/publication/2017/future-college-campus
[xix] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2019/02/digital-transformation-quest-rethink-campus-operations
[xxi] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2018/04/college-online-degree-blended-learning/557642
[xxii] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://qz.com/1191619/amazon-is-becoming-its-own-university
[xxiii] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.fastcompany.com/3029109/5-bold-predictions-for-the-future-of-higher-education
[xxiv] Article accessed on April 16, 2019: https://www.acenet.edu/the-presidency/columns-and-features/Pages/state-funding-a-race-to-the-bottom.aspx
We would love to hear from you about what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!
Background on Public Private Partnerships (P3’s):
Many institutions of higher education are facing mounting pressure on their mission to deliver high-quality, affordable education to students and perform world-class research. Reductions in public funding support and concerns about overall affordability present substantial near-term and longer-term budget challenges for many institutions.
Public institutions are predominantly affected, having been constrained by suspensions or reductions in state funding. State appropriations across the US grew by just 0.5% annually between 2005 and 2015. State funding has still not recovered to 2008 levels, the last year in which state funding decisions would not have been affected by the Great Recession.
(Source: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) — state appropriations revenue divided by total fall enrollment, 2005–15)
Public-private partnership models are continuing to proliferate as cash-strapped colleges and universities seek to replace or update aging and outdated infrastructure amid tight finances.
(Source: Proliferating Partnerships)
What is the P3 Delivery Model?
A public-private partnership, or P3, is long-term agreement between a public entity and a private industry team that is tasked with designing, building, financing, operating and maintaining a public facility. The past decade has seen a steady increase in the use of P3 structures, both inside and outside higher education. In 2016, something of a watershed year for P3, multiple high-profile projects came online in response to a variety of public needs, including a $1-billion-plus water infrastructure project servicing San Antonio, and a $300-million-plus renovation of the Denver International Airport’s Great Hall.
“Public” is a non-profit institutional or governmental entity that engages a “private” for-profit entity to pay for a particular project.
The “private” partner provides funding (and often expertise) to deliver (and often operate) the project used by the “public” entity to meet its purposes.
In return for its capital, the “private” entity gets a revenue flow from the asset it has paid for.
The emergence of the P3 option is happening where it matters most: projects that would be otherwise unattainable under the traditional public-improvement delivery models. For instance, 10 years ago, only a handful of higher education P3 projects were up and running; today, we are approaching three dozen such projects.
The biggest challenge is, of course, the financing component, but P3 teams bring much more to the table than money — they give public entities access to expertise and innovation that can add significant value to projects at each phase of development.
Motivations for P3 transactions vary widely, but include:
- Supplementing traditional debt instruments. These include private capital, using off balance sheet or alternative mechanisms.
- Transfer of risk. Historically, universities have born all or most of the risk of facilities-related projects themselves. A P3 is a way to either transfer or at least share the risk.
- Speed and efficiency. A P3 allows for a faster development process, and time to completion is generally shorter and on schedule. The sole focus of the private entity is to complete the project on budget and on time. University infrastructure tends to have competing priorities across all-campus facility needs.
- Outsourcing provision of non-core assets. Outsourcing allows institutions to focus investment of internal resources and capabilities on those functions that are closer to the academic needs of its students.
- Experience. Private partners often have much more experience and skills in a particular development area (e.g., facility architecture and infrastructure, student housing needs) and are able to better accommodate the needs of students, faculty, administrators, etc.
- Planning and budgeting. Private partners offer experience and know-how in long-term maintenance planning and whole life cycle budgeting.
The four types of P3s:
- Operating contract/management agreement. Short- to medium-term contract with private firm for operating services
- Ground lease/facility lease. Long-term lease with private developer who commits to construct, operate and maintain the project
- Availability payment concession. Long-term concession with private developer to construct, operate, maintain and finance the project in exchange for annual payments subject to abatement for nonperformance
- Demand-risk concession. Long-term concession with private developer to construct, operate, maintain and finance the project in exchange for rights to collect revenues related to the project
Pro’s and Con’s of P3’s:
Since their emergence in student housing several years ago, P3s have become important strategies for higher education institutions because of the many benefits they offer, including:
- Lower developer costs
- Developer expertise
- Operational expertise
- Access to capital
- Preservation of debt capacity
- More favorable balance sheets and credit statements
- Risk mitigation
- Faster procurement and project delivery (It can typically take a university about 5 years to get a project built. With a P3, that process can be reduced to just 2 years. Additionally, P3s can save approximately 25% in costs compared to typical projects.)
Beyond the above, the indirect advantages of P3s in student housing are numerous, such as they:
- Provide better housing for students
- Expand campus capacity
- Create high-quality facilities
- Expand the tax base for both a city and county
- Provide an economic boost to surrounding areas, which likely lead to private growth and other improvements
It is important to note that, while there are many benefits of P3s for higher education institutions, these agreements also have disadvantages that need to be considered, including:
- High cost of capital
- Reduced control for the university
- Complexity of deals
- Multi-party roles and responsibilities
- Limitation on future university development
A LOOK AHEAD
Where Are We Heading?
- More political involvement and pressure to consider P3
- Pre-development Risks – Many projects failing to close
- Issues with Construction Pricing & Labor Shortages
- An increasing number of developers are getting in the on-campus business; however, developers are being more strategic on which projects/procurements to respond to
- Exploration of other sources of funds like tax credits, USDA, and opportunity zones
- Shared governance continues to grow
- Larger, more complex P3 projects including long term concessions, availability payment models, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
- Bundling of Procurements (food, housing (including faculty), academic buildings, hotel, energy, facility maintenance, etc.)
- State of the P3 Higher Education Industry by Brailsford & Dunlavey http://programmanagers.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/P3-State-of-the-Industry-Final_Small.pdf
- Should your University enter into a Public/Private Partnership – the Pro’s and Con’s https://edualliancegroup.blog/2017/06/26/should-your-university-enter-into-a-publicprivate-partnership-the-pros-and-cons
- No Free Lunch: The Pros and Cons of Public-Private Partnerships for Infrastructure Financing https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2017/02/09/no-free-lunch-the-pros-and-cons-of-public-private-partnerships-for-infrastructure-financing
We would love to hear from you about what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!
Jacqueline Gargus is a professor of architecture at the Knowlton School. Educated at Wellesley College and the University of Pennsylvania, she joined the Knowlton School faculty in 1988. She has also taught at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and has been a Senior Research Fellow at the Bauhaus Universität, Weimar, and the Technical University of Vienna. She is the author of Ideas of Order: A Formal Approach to Architecture (Kendall Hunt, 1994) and the multimedia digital video textbook, Architectural History 1, produced by iTunes University. Her most recent book is Architecture Guide: China (2016), co-authored with Evan Chakroff and Addison Godel.
Follow this link for access to over 40 youtube videos that take you from antiquity through mid-1800’s.
If you just cannot get enough (like me) click here for another 100 episodes: iTunes History of Architecture Course
We would love to hear from you about what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends.
Feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!
An Introduction to the Architecture of the Italian Renaissance By Classical Architect and Artist @FTerryArchitect #RIBA #Architecture #Education #ilmaBlogPosted: August 17, 2018
Earlier this year UK-based Francis Terry MA (Cantab), Dip Arch, RIBA Director, gave his office a wonderful presentation I would like to share with my audience:
Francis is part of a new generation of classical architects who have recently gained a reputation for designing high quality works of architecture. Francis’s pursuit of architecture grew out of his passion for drawing and his love of historic buildings. He studied architecture at Cambridge University qualifying in 1994. While at Cambridge, he used his architectural skills to design numerous stage sets for various dramatic societies including The Footlights, The Cambridge Opera Society and The European Theatre Group.
Terry along with his colleague also talk about classical architecture in modern times at a recent TEDx Talk:
More Information available by clicking here. Not only does his website display great examples of classical architecture but he has a great blog with interesting writings and videos.
Blog Posts Related to Higher Education
- Library of the Future – For Colleges & Universities
- Mansueto Library by JAHN
- Creative Arts Center at Brown University by Diller Scofidio + Renfro
- What is a High Performance School?
- Architect’s Sketchbook – Montclair State University (Sketches by @FrankCunhaIII, 2017)
- 13 Examples of Green Architecture
- WELL Communities: Health & Wellness Lifestyle
- You Know LEED, But Do You Know WELL?
- The 2030 Challenge for Planning @Arch2030
- What is The 2030 Challenge? @Arch2030
- Smart Cities
- Top 20: Technology & Innovation Ideas For Architects
- What Can Architects Do To Design Safer Classrooms For Our Children? Part 1: Door Security Guidelines
- What Can Architects Do To Design Safer Classrooms For Our Children? Part 2: Ideas & Safety Tips For Schools
- What Can Architects Do To Design Safer Classrooms For Our Children? Part 3 Actions We Can Take To Promote Safe And Successful Schools
- What Can Architects Do To Design Safer Classrooms For Our Children? Part 4: Safety Guidelines For Schools
My Higher Education Projects
- New Computer Science Facility for College of Science & Mathematics
- School of Nursing & Graduate School
- New Research Facility, Montclair State University
- Conrad J. Schmitt Hall Renovation, Montclair State University
- Frank Sinatra Hall, Montclair State University
- Music School, Montclair State University
- Student Recreation Center, Montclair State University
- College Hall (In Progress)
- Conceptual Design – Adaptive Re-Use of Existing Cogeneration Plant
- Conceptual Design – Study Atrium
- Small Project – Successful Conversion (Tech Classrooms) Before & After
- New Center for Environmental Life Sciences
- Babbio Center, Stevens Institute of Technology
JAHN is an international architectural firm with over 75 years of experience that has achieved critical recognition and won numerous awards. JAHN’s ability to integrate design creativity and corporate professionalism makes it a leading firm in global design Innovation.
The Joe and Rika Mansueto Library opened at the heart of the University of Chicago campus in 2011. It features a soaring elliptical glass dome capping a 180-seat Grand Reading Room, state-of-the-art conservation and digitization laboratories, and an underground high-density automated storage and retrieval system. The Mansueto Library speeds scholarly productivity by allowing for the retrieval of materials within an average time of 3 minutes through use of robotic cranes. Designed by renowned architect Helmut Jahn, the Mansueto Library has been recognized with a Distinguished Building Citation of Merit by the American Institute of Architects’ Chicago chapter and a Patron of the Year Award by the Chicago Architecture Foundation.
Location: University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
Lead Designer: Helmut Jahn
Area: 58,700 SF
Project Year: 2011
The site in the center of theUniversity of Chicago’s Campus is surrounded by a variety of different buildings. With a mixture of styles, ranging from the gothic quadrangle to the south, the Limestone Brutalism of Netsch’s Regenstein Library to the east, the Henry Moore monument and Legorreta’s colorful Student Housing to the north and a building to the west, which will be replaced by a new Science Building. There is not much to relate to.
The problem was to store 3.5 million books with an Automated Storage and Retrieval System (ASRS). The expectations in the brief suggested to house those in a well-designed “Box” above grade. In an effort to infringe as little as possible with the open space, make the Reading Room and the Preservation Department the most pleasant space to be in and in line with our approach to challenge habitual conventions, we opted to put the books below grade, where their environment can be better controlled to achieve the desired constant temperature and humidity of 60 degrees, 30% RH – at less cost. The people-oriented spaces could thus be located at grade in a minimal elliptical glass dome, which fits the context, because it defies conventional relationships.
Murphy Jahn think it has been embraced by the leadership of the University, because it represents the mission of theUniversity of Chicago as catalyst for the advancement of knowledge. It is interesting that this happened at an Institution where the disciplines of Architecture and Engineering are not taught, but a spirit prevails to go beyond where others stop. Science, Physics, the liberal and applied Art start, when others think they are complete.
Once a consensus on the design was reached, the normal process started to solve the problem: comfort and sustainability, light-control, structure, life-safety, operation and maintenance.
The structural grid-shell of 120 x 240 feet and the insulated glazing represent a very minimal and intelligent system for mediating between the varying exterior conditions and the desired interior comfort.
At the interior there is a seamless integration between lighting, air supply and furnishings, which were fabricated in solid European White Oak.
More than anybody the users will benefit from an environment that is pleasant and conductive to study and research. This is not your classical Library, but points to the library of the future.