Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Rosario Mannino @RSMannino

Rosario Mannino was born and raised in New Jersey.  He holds a Bachelor of Architecture from Florida Atlantic University and a Professional Certificate from New York University in Construction Project Management. Eight years after graduating from FAU, Mannino founded the Architect-Led Design-Build company RS|MANNINO Architecture + Construction.  RS|MANNINO builds on our diverse professional and construction backgrounds to provide a balanced and thoughtful approach to our clients’ projects. Together with our trusted network of professionals, trade and supplier resources, we bring the expertise and hands-on experience in architecture, design, engineering, construction trades, and project management necessary to make every project we take on a success. They approach everything we do with a commitment to an integrated design and construction process.  For more information visit them online FacebookTwitter; LinkedInWebsite

ILMA INTERVIEW

When did you first become interested in Architect-Led Design-Build?

I knew I wanted to be an architect from a very young age.  Growing up around construction, I was so intrigued by the entire process.  I loved being on the job site watching the architectural plans unfold into a beautiful home or building.  I always thought I had to decide on which path to pursue: architecture vs. construction/office vs. jobsite.  I had been exploring the idea of both disciplines from a very young age, and it grew into a focused research project for me by the time I reached high school.  I don’t think there was ever this “ah ha” moment.  It was a passion that I had from the start.

Can you describe the process of ALDB?

As the Architect, we contract with the owner both to design and to construct a building, and we procure the construction services by contracting directly with the various construction trades.

Can you walk us through a typical project?

In ALDB, we start our projects very similarly to a traditional method.  We start with a budget and scope.  If the budget and scope are approved, we start to design.  Once we complete our schematic design, we provide an updated preliminary estimate.  Once we confirm we are within budget, we continue to refine the design and the cost estimates.  We want our clients to be informed and included throughout the entire process.   This factor creates a trusting relationship between our firm and our clients.  With our method, the clients only need to communicate with us.  There are less parties involved making communication much more efficient.

How are the fees structured?

Depends on the complexity and size of the project; some are hourly design fees with the Construction documents set at a fixed fee which is determined after Schematic Design.  Most of our projects are defined well enough that we can provide a professional fee plus reimbursable expenses.  Our Construction Management fee is a fixed fee which also includes a pre-construction management fee.  Occasionally we will perform Construction as a fixed price.

What are some of the risks and rewards of ALDB?

If a problem arises, there is only one place to point the finger.  In the traditional design-bid-build method, miscommunication between Architect and Contractor can cause unnecessary tension.  With ALDB, the entire process is much more cohesive creating a team-like environment. The clients also feel a sense of comfort when only having to communicate with one entity.

What are the three greatest challenges with ALDB process?

Higher Insurance premiums – This is one of the main reasons why we separate our business entities, having separate insurance for both entities and separate contracts for the client.

Most Architecture firms can take on smaller projects if the work load is slowing down, and most builders have very small overhead to compensate for the slower times. With ALDB, you need to have separate staff for both Architecture and Construction; it’s a bigger machine to feed.

Training new staff is much more of an investment because overall, they are becoming much more knowledgeable about our whole profession. There is even more training involved because new staff must learn both Architecture and Construction. It is extremely gratifying to educate Architects to think in a different way.

What are the three greatest advantages of ALDB?

One of the best advantages of being an ALDB firm is that we get to work directly with the craftsmen themselves to discuss how we can make improvements to the project; it is a learning experience for both of us. We appreciate this close relationship, and I am certain our craftsmen enjoy working in close contact with the designer. The designer and the craftsman work directly together.

As the Architect, we take on a role that allows better control of project budgets, schedules, and overall project quality, including the quality of design.

It’s so much fun. I think it’s so much fun because we are truly going back to being Master builders. As Architects we love to problem solve; that’s what we do all day long, but now it’s even more in depth and more dynamic.

Do you see ALDB as a way for Architects to take back “control” of the design and construction process?

For certain markets, yes.  I have had the pleasure of working on projects with unlimited design budgets, having total control of the project as the Architecture firm.  In reality, not every client is going to have an unlimited budget.  The client relationship in ALDB is far greater than in a traditional design-bid-build method.  We have found our clients to be so much more appreciate of our talents on our design-build projects vs. our design only jobs.  Some of our design jobs have a 2-3 month duration, followed by phone calls and quick site meetings.  In design-build, we have a much closer relationship with our clients; most of them feel like family before the project is over!

Why do you think that most Architects, Clients and Contractors shy away from ALDB?

For Architects, it is not necessarily something they ever thought about because they weren’t introduced to it.  We are trained in (most) schools to be Starchitects with grand budgets.  After school and our internship is completed, most architects find the niche they are most comfortable in.  I cannot say that ALDB is easy nor is it for everyone to pursue.  There is a more executive and dynamic role; there is a much more entrepreneurial mode to ALDB as opposed to running a boutique design firm.  You can be a one-person design firm, but to do design-build you need to build a solid team.  The daily tasks of designing, managing the office, managing the sites, and keeping finances in order is not for everyone, nor can one person do it all.  It requires a great team, and we are fortunate to have that.

I have not yet met a client who shied away from ALDB. However, we do work on design only jobs.  This usually happens when the client already has a relationship with a contractor.  We are agreeable to this because we can only build so much, and we want our clients to be comfortable with who they are working with.

For contractors, there is a sense of losing the market.  Good builders and contractors should not be concerned.  They may choose to adapt, but to be honest I do not think this will be some sweeping trend in the AEC industry.

What are some of the tools you use (from AIA, NCARB, Insurance Company, Other Professional Organizations) to help you manage your firm’s performance and reduce risk?

I have read a lot of literature on ALDB; the AIA has a few great articles as well as a book on ALDB.  There is an organization specifically for design-build called Design Build Institute of America (DBIA).  This organization is geared more toward government and large-scale projects.  There are also a few attorneys who have published articles on ALDB that have been very helpful.

My research has lead me to separate my design and construction contracts, but each project is unique.  I treat each project differently.  I cannot really say I have a set method because our scale of work differs so greatly, spanning a large spectrum.  On one end, we have worked on small kitchen renovations, and on the other end we have done new construction on vacant lots.

What is the percentage of ALDB your firm is currently working on – what are the major differences between traditional project delivery vs ALDB projects?

Being recently engaged in a few large multi-family developments, we’ve found that we are providing more than the basic services on those scale projects.  This is due to our experience.  Developers are taking advantage of our management and construction background.  Our role is much more than just producing design documents.   I would say we are about 60% design only and 40% ALDB projects.

Is there anything you would like to see to make the ALDB even better for future projects?

I hope to see more architecture schools incorporating some type of design-build programs.  If Architects played a larger role, communities would greatly benefit.  It would be nice if ALDB gained more popularity so that clients can learn to appreciate Architects playing a larger role.

For more exclusive ILMA interviews click here.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

 


Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Felicia Middleton @UrbanAesthetics

Felicia Middleton is an Architecture Design Professional, an Author, an EPA Certified Renovator and an Entrepreneur. She is the principal of Urban Aesthetics, LLC serving the Philadelphia metropolitan area.  She specializes in Residential and Commercial Architecture and Interior Design – both Renovations and New Construction – as well as Commercial and Residential Kitchens and Baths, Quality Assurance, Interior Material Specifications, Interior Commercial Design including Restaurants and Bars, Salons and Spas, Education and Church Facilities and Corporate Design and Retail Planning. She also provides Construction Administration and Construction Management services.

She can be found on social media by following these links: Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and on LinkedIn.

ILMA INTERVIEW

When and why did you decide to become an Architect?

At the young age of 15, while attending the Carver H.S. of Engineering and Science I took a drafting class and decided what I wanted to do as a career. I told a drafting teacher that I wanted to draw on computers. We had a drafting teacher who was very encouraging, named Mr. Avant. The students loved him so much because he would let us eat lunch with him in his drafting class and he had a genuine interest in each one of us. Sadly, he passed last year. I always wanted to thank him for his help and encouragement.

What were some of the challenges of achieving your dream?

College financing often was a challenge for me. My family had difficulties and paying for college became a struggle. I had to work many jobs while in college but I realize now that those jobs helped lay the framework for my future. Thank God for making it possible for me to overcome so many obstacles and pursue and achieve my dream.

Any memorable clients or project highlights?

Earlier in my career, I designed a Commissary Kitchen Warehouse and several cafeterias for the Vineland School District in Vineland, NJ. I learned so much from that project. I learned a lot about the operations of school food facilities. That learning process really reinforced how important the use of a building is in design and planning.

During that same time, I worked on many well-known food facility projects in casinos throughout the country. I found a design niche that I grew to love and still love over a decade later.

How does your family support what you do?

My immediate family supports me 100%. Especially my mother. She has been my biggest fan. My friends and family will often pass my name to others who may need my services. In addition, they support events and projects sponsored by my company, especially the community projects.

How do Architects measure success?

Many architects measure success via projects and achievements and the impact that they have on others. I would also add that success is measured by the way we are able to make a difference in our communities.

What matters most to you in design?

Safety, is extremely important to me, also function and aesthetics. Buildings are where we spend the majority of our time so they should be safe spaces that add to our well-being.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

What do you hope to achieve over the next 2 years? 5 years?

Over the next two years I will focus on managing Urban Aesthetics projects while developing my own individual brand. Within 5 years I will have my brand developed in Food Facility Design and operate separately from Urban Aesthetics.

Who is your favorite Architect? Why?

I feel in our profession mentoring and inspiring is very important. Your life, work and values should inspire your followers. My favorite historical architect, Daniel Burnham’s life story is inspiring, his buildings are beautiful and he has written very inspiring quotes. I have used his quote as a motto for my business.

“Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone be a living thing, asserting itself with ever-growing insistency…”

My favorite current architects are my colleagues.

Do you have a coach or mentor?

I have a Business Coach but unfortunately, I do not currently have a mentor. I have been blessed with many mentors throughout my life and career and I have mentored many.

Mentoring relationships are not permanent. They end or change as we grow. I have desired to find a mentor for a couple of years but I have not been able to create the relationship.

The architect that I share an office with is probably the closest person to a mentor that I currently have. He is a senior on the architecture profession and he offers advice and gives advice when I ask. I have a great deal of respect for him.

What is your favorite historic and modern (contemporary) project? Why?

My favorite historic project is the Colosseum. The Colosseum is a grand structure located in Rome, Italy. It is beautiful and strong, representing the games that were performed for spectators. Amazingly, it has stood robust and tall for almost 2000 years.

My favorite modern building has changed a many ties over the last 20 years, as innovation, design and the environment surrounding me changes. Most recently, the Cira Center, in Philadelphia, has been a favorite. I love it because it stands a jewel above the surrounding buildings and it represented the expansion of our downtown to the other side of the Schuylkill River. An added bonus is that the building is green, LEED Certified.

Where do you see the profession going over the next few decades?

For a while, it seemed as if there was a decline in the profession but I have noticed a recent resurgence. I do believe there needs to be some liberation in the process involved in becoming an architect and function within the profession. I see the profession opening up to multiple careers, interchanging with architecture.

What type of technology do you see in the design and construction industries?

Virtual 3d Modeling is a form of technology that I have seen most recently. Virtual reality in design will help us communicate designs to clients who have difficulty understanding plans. In addition, advances in project management software helps to streamline the planning and construction processes.

Who / what has been your greatest influence in design?

The Green Movement has been my greatest influence in design. I became serious about environmental issues while in college and there I decided that it would have a big impact on my work. I worked for an environmental organization for a couple of years while in college and I learned so much. I added a few environment-centered courses while in college and

my senior internship included researching Brownfield’s Redevelopment. When I first entered the design world, eco-friendly design was not a large part of what we did. I was a bit discouraged at first but was reenergized in the early 2000’s when the green movement really started taking shape.

Which building or project type would you like to work on that you haven’t been part of yet?

A LEED project. My current burning desire is to participate on a LEED project.

How do you hope to inspire / mentor the next generation of Architects?

I will to continue mentoring our young people by explaining to them as many aspects of our work as I can, to help the understand all that is included and let them see that this profession has so much to offer, depending on what direction you wish to go. I will let them see that when you fall in love with your work, it can be very fulfilling. I hope to let them see that you can make a difference in your community and also the world while working in this field but you MUST find your way.

What advice would you give aspiring architects (K-12)? College students? Graduates?

Fall in love love with architecture and the profession if you want to succeed and endure the work. You will have to put your time in while working but be sure to learn more than what is expected.

What does Architecture mean to you?

Architecture is art in the form of function and use. We create structures that affect people physically and emotionally. We discover solutions to problems both spatially and creatively. I learned at a young age that I liked seeing how things come together. In architecture, part of your work is to develop the way a building comes together. At times we have to take a building apart to bring the desired project together.

What is your design process?

I follow a basic process:

  • Determining the client’s Gain an understanding of their situation (financial, time constraints and any limitations)
  • Preliminary Research – Code, Zoning, Needs of Use, Property,
  • Pre-Design – Discuss research findings, create
  • Design Development – Develop the concept into a more workable Additional research.
  • Coordinate with project team.
  • Complete

If you could not be an Architect, what would you be?

If I could not work in this great profession, I would be a writer. I guess I already am a writer. I have always excelled at writing. Writing is my second love, next to architecture. I have published 2 books, written for magazines and published several blogs. I absolutely love to write.

What is your dream project?

I have a strange desire to design a high-end Starbucks, similar to the project in progress in Chicago.

What advice do you have for a future Executive leader?

Take time to let things develop. Relish in the importance of being guided by others, mentors who can help you and your interests. You must share in your success, look to give to your fellow business colleagues. Develop a relationship with fellow business owners and remember that collaboration produces multiple wins. Work with partnerships, strategically develop partners with whom you can develop lasting business relationships.

What are three key challenges you face as a leader in business today and one trend you see in your industry?

Maintaining Momentum is a challenge that requires constant thought and planning. Moving to the next level while continuing a current pace is very important for success.

Keeping the needs of our community in focus while maintaining momentum is important and also challenging.

One trend I have seen in my industry, especially locally is the explosion of development within the inner city. It is similar to the Mc-Mansion boom we saw years ago.

What one thing must an executive leader be able to do to be successful in the next 3 years?

Remain relevant to society, business and your community. Offer a unique service that keeps the client as a focus.

What are some executive insights you have gained since you have been sitting in the executive leadership seat – or what is one surprise you have encountered as the world of business continues to morph as we speak?

I have learned that business is difficult and you have to extract emotion from the process or it will wear you out. I work in a creative profession but often the bottom line drives my work. I’ve read about and followed the lives of innovative leaders in business to inspire me, geniuses such as Steve Jobs. Although they are one-in-a million I you can be one, I can make a difference. I strive to learn as much as you can from these leaders, both good and bad and use their tools in my work.

Shark Tank may be entertaining but you can learn a lot watching that show. Learn where you can. Never stop educating yourself. Follow the rules.

A surprise I have encountered is the number of opportunities that are available for current and future business owners.

Final Thoughts on How to Be Successful?

Read as much as you can. Keep learning. Be honest, thankful and give back as much as possible. Follow the rules. To me, true success, being able to use the resources that you’ve been blessed with to bless someone else. Whether it is with your money, labor, knowledge, time, mentoring, etc.

For more exclusive ILMA interviews click here.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

Christmas Gift Ideas from ILMA


An Exclusive Interview with Architect @FrankCunhaIII

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Ask the Architect

An Exclusive Interview with Architect Frank Cunha III

by Denise Franklin 

Follow Denise Franklin on Twitter

Frank Cunha III, AIA, NCARB is a Registered Architect licensed in CT, DC, DE, FL, MD, NJ, NY, PA and is currently seeking reciprocity in VA as well.  Mr. Cunha is the founder of FC3 Architecture + Design, established in 2005 to serve its clients in various markets, including commercial and residential projects. He writes / blogs for I Love My Architect and Just Architecture.

You can find him online at:

  What was it about Architecture that helped you decide it was the field for you?

I always loved to draw as a child and I always loved to build.  Give me scraps of cardboards and leftover bricks and sticks in the backyard and my imagination would take over.  I was always fascinated with churches and castles.  They have a very obvious Archetype, and from a very early age I always imagined that I too would be able to one day shape the design of our cities and how people inhabit them.  Even when I travel, it is the Architecture that defines the people and the place (unless you are in the wilderness, where nature rules supreme).  In the city, man (men and women) are able to shape the world we live in.  With this ability comes great responsibility not just freedom to do whatever we want.  The industrial and post-industrial eras have taught us that!

FC3 Interview 03

How long have you been in the profession?

 After 5 years of Architecture school and after 3 years of internship and after passing my NCARB IDP Architecture Exam I “officially” became a Registered Architect in January 2004.  It was not easy but it was worth it.  Going through the arduous process allowed me to learn the different aspects of being an Architect.

FC3 Interview 04

It appears that Architecture incorporates many fields of study, for example; astronomy, meteorology, geography and I am sure there is much more.  Could you explain?

FC3 Interview 05

Throughout history, especially before technology and social media distractions, civilizations, would honor the heavens by building monuments.  Examples of this can be seen all over the world and there are plenty of interesting websites that address this. 

Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences so it is no wonder that early civilizations would use the mathematics from the heavens to orient their buildings and monuments. Many pre-historic cultures left behind astronomical artifacts such as the Egyptian and Nubian monuments, and early civilizations such as Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky. Climatology, the study of atmospheric science, is another extension coming out from Astronomy. In Architecture both the disciplines that is astrology and climatology, leads to a concept known as Vastu.

If you want to learn more about these interdisciplinary studies, you can click here or click here.  

FC3 Interview 06

FC3 Interview 07

Today, Architects still consider orientation when placing a building and the building components on the site. The building’s orientation can even help Architects obtain LEED credits from the US Green Building Council, an organization that promotes sustainable design and construction around the world.

 Is there a deciding factor for you when agreeing to take part in projects?

FC3 Interview 08

 One thing I have learned over the past 15 years in the field of Architecture is that there are many components to accepting and working on a project.  While we all need to make money to eat and survive, here are a few things that should be considered before agreeing to take on a project:

  1. Is there a chemistry between the client and the designer, i.e., do you like each other? Can you work well together?
  2. Is the project exciting and challenging?
  3. Can I assemble the right team to complete the project effectively? And do we have the right fee to allow our design team to perform the project effectively?

If the answer to any of these is “no” then I keep looking for another opportunity.  Every time an opportunity passes, two or more new ones appear.  Don’t be hasty just for the sake of getting a project!

 The projects you are sharing today are they based on specific concepts?

 As a young Architect my aesthetic and design concepts are still evolving.

Although we do not force my designs on my clients, we do have some underlying principals we like to maintain on our projects whenever feasible.  

FC3 Architecture takes a Holistic approach to each individual project to meet the client’s specific needs.   We work with our team of expert consultants to bring the most value to the client through rigorous, integrated design practices.  It is our mission to explore and develop the “Architectural Design Aesthetics” & “Building Tectonics  Systems” to engage the following issues on a project-by-project basis, where applicable, to discover and address the project requirements established by the client and the Architect during the Pre-Design phase:

  • Program / Livability / Functional
  • Provide efficient space planning to maximize client’s programmatic needs (don’t over build)
  • Contextual/Site 
  • Determination of most effective use of a given site
  • Optimize access to the site
  • Maximize land, views, lighting, wind, water elements, other natural features, etc.
  • Provide guidance for best use of materials, structure, and form
  • Properly integrate new design into existing contextual surroundings
  • Sustainable / Environmental
  • Coordinate with client’s abatement team when required
  • Coordinate with client’s commissioning team when required
  • Provide guidance and integration on current sustainable trends
  • Sustainable Design
  • Energy Use & Conservation
  • Waste Management
  • Selection of Materials – Reuse, Recycling, Renewable sources, etc.
  • Water Use & Conservation
  • Structural / Tectonic
  • Coordinate with structural team to develop integrated structural design
  • Coordinate with MEP team to develop integrated MEP design
  • Coordinate with other industry experts as needed to meet project goals
  • Historic / Preservation
  • When required, document and research preservation of historic elements
  • Provide design details that are sensitive to preexisting building/site elements
  • Engage our expert consultant team as may be required
  • Economic / Legalization
  • Provide assistance in developing a feasibility study
  • Assist client’s legal counsel with Planning/Zoning Board approvals
  • Constructability / Management
  • Assist client with project schedules and budgets throughout the project
  • Engage our expert construction/project management team as may be required

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For anyone in school considering Architecture as a profession, check out this great article by my colleague, William Martin, AIA.

Click here to see some of Frank’s recent featured projects.

Click here to read more “Ask the Architect” articles.


About FC3Architecture +Design LLC

Mission Statement:

FC3 Architecture takes a Holistic approach to each individual project to meet the client’s specific needs.   FC3 Architecture works with our team of expert consultants to bring the most value to the client through rigorous, integrated design practices.  It is our mission to explore and develop the “Architectural Design Aesthetics” & “Building Tectonics  Systems” to engage the following issues on a project-by-project basis, where applicable, to discover and address the project requirements established by the client and the Architect during the Pre-Design phase:

  -Program/Livability/Functional 

– Provide efficient space planning to maximize client’s programmatic needs

  -Contextual/Site 

– Determination of most effective use of a given site

– Optimize access to the site

– Maximize land, views, lighting, wind, water elements, other natural features, etc.

– Provide guidance for best use of materials, structure, and form

– Properly integrate new design into existing contextual surroundings

  -Sustainable/Environmental

– Coordinate with client’s abatement team when required

– Coordinate with client’s commissioning team when required

– Provide guidance and integration on current sustainable trends regarding:

– Sustainable Site Design

– Energy Use & Conservation

– Waste Management

– Selection of Materials – Reuse, Recycling, Renewable sources, etc.

– Water Use & Conservation

– Use & Conservation

-Structural/Tectonic

– Coordinate with structural team to develop integrated structural design

– Coordinate with MEP team to develop integrated MEP design

– Coordinate with other industry experts as needed to meet project goals

  -Historic/Preservation

– When required, document and research preservation of historic elements

– Provide design details that are sensitive to preexisting building/site elements

– Engage our expert consultant team as may be required

Economic/Legalization

– Provide assistance in developing a feasibility study

– Assist client’s legal counsel with Planning/Zoning Board approvals

  -Constructability/Management

– Assist client with project schedules and budgets throughout the project

– Engage our expert construction/project management team as may be required

Some more ideas.

Also Check Out:

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


About Frank

Introduction

Frank Cunha III, AIA, graduated New Jersey Institute of Technology in 1998.  He is currently a Registered Architect in 9 States – CT, DC, DE, FL, MD, NJ, NY, PA, VA; NCARB member, USGBC LEED Green Associate & Current MSU Executive MBA Student.  He is also a former Secretary of the American Institute of Architects, NJ Chapter and former President of the Architects League of Northern NJ.

Montclair State University

Frank Cunha III, AIA, University Architect, has been with the Montclair State University Facilities Team since 2007. Frank is passionate about planning, design and constructing complex projects in a challenging and ever changing environment. He considers the environment during all phases of the project while addressing the needs of the occupants to ensure the stakeholder’s program requirements are met. With the assistance of his design and construction teams, Frank has been responsible for many projects of various size and scope around campus. Some project highlights include: Student Recreation Center, Center for Environmental Life Sciences, Cali School of Music, School of Nursing, and historic renovation and addition to College Hall, to name a few. In 2010, Frank was selected as the AIA New Jersey Resident of the Year.

FC3 Architecture+Design, LLC

Frank Cunha III, AIA established FC3 Architecture+Design in 2005 to serve its clients in various markets including but not limited to commercial and residential projects. Over the years we have completed countless successful projects, which include custom homes, retail facilities, as well as hospitality projects.

Frank Cunha III, AIA, NCARB, the founder of FC3 Architecture is a Registered Architect in NJ, NY, PA, CT, DE and has close to 20-years experience in the field of design and construction.

We typically work with our clients from inception (site analysis, feasibility and program studies, zoning/planning, full-service design for all trades, construction support services) thru close-outs and post-occupancy.

Architecture Experience

From 2000 to December 2007, Mr. Cunha worked at Ecoplan Architects, which merged with Cubellis, Inc.  After the merge Frank took on a greater leadership role with the firm and was promoted to Associate Principal.  He was the senior project manager in charge of higher education projects for the NJ/NY Metro office, completing over 50 successful projects, including the new $35M 78,000 SF Montclair State University Student Recreation Center, for which he was the point person from design to close-out.  Frank was also a key member of the design team for the Babbio Center at Stevens Institute of Technology in  Hoboken, NJ.  Both were designed to meet USGBC LEED NC standards.

From December 2007 to present, Mr. Cunha has worked for the Capital Planning & Project Management facilities department at Montclair State University where he is currently working as the University Architect.  He has worked on various projects over the years as an “Owner’s Representative.”  Projects include: $35M state-of-the-art John J. Cali School of Music and $25M Sinatra Hall Housing Complex, a new student housing complex, both under construction.  Mr. Cunha is also currently working on a new 100,000 SF Center of Environmental Life Sciences facility for the School of Science and Mathematics as well as a new 130,000 SF School of Business facility.  The business school and science facilities are being designed to meet USGBC LEED NC (v2009) standards.

Photography & Artwork

Frank Cunha III is a photographic artist with a passion to capture the essence of the objects, people, or scenes he shoots.  Some of his favorite subjects include architecture, people, places, and random everyday objects.  Check out his portfolio for some examples of his work.  His work will be exhibited for the Art in Architecture Exhibit at the Somerset Art Association this Fall. Click here to check out the submission.

Charity

Frank Cunha III co-founded “Architecture for Humanity Newark” and acted quickly in February of 2010 to donate well over $2,000 in proceeds from his photos and artwork to various charity organizations to help with the earthquake relief efforts in Haiti including: Architecture for Humanity, UNICEF, and the American Red Cross.

AIA Service

Frank Cunha III has served on various national, state, and local committees over the past 9 years.  His greatest contributions to AIA include the following: President of the Architects League; 2009 Secretary for AIA New Jersey, 2009; The AIA-NJ Young Architects Forum, where he wrote several articles for the AIA quarterly newsletter, organized mixers, golf clinics, and participated in various forums; The Scholarship Committee Chair where he awarded over $75,000 in scholarship awards from 2001-2008.Special Editor for the Architects Leagueline; Presenter on sustainability for NJ Chapter of the Eastern Regional Association of Higher Education Facilities.

Awards & Honors

2013 Peer Design Competition, Bronze Award for “Unbuilt” Work by the Architects League of Northern NJ. Click Here for More Info.
2010 Resident of the Year by AIA New Jersey for his charitable contributions. Click Here for More Info.
2010 Vegliante Distinguished Service Award by the Architects League of Northern NJ.
2006 Young Architect of the Year by AIA New Jersey for his exceptional service. Click Here for More Info.

Recommendation Letters

Click Here

Publications

NCARB – Architects With the Certification Edge (Click Here)


Architecture Resources

Blogs:

Young Architect!
Michael Riscica’s blog aims to teach and help other Young Architects be more successful in their personal, academic and professional careers.  He does that by sharing in full disclosure what I did to become a Licensed Architect with the many successes and failures along the way.

Business of Architecture
A site for Architects about running a better business.

Death by Architecture
Death By Architecture (DBA) began in 1995 as the personal web page of Mario Cipresso, an undergraduate architecture student at the University of Illinois at Chicago. By 1997 Death By Architecture had become the preeminent site for architecture competition information on the internet.

EntreArchitect
At EntreArchitect, our mission is simple: To help you build a better business, so you can be a better architect. A better business starts with planning for profit.

Life of an Architect
A Blog about being or working with Architects.

Green Roof Florida & Arid, Hot, Dry World Food & Green Roofs
Green Roofs for Florida & the Arid, Dry Climates. Green Roof Plants and Green Roof System Design for dry, hot, humid and windy ecosystems. MetroVerde Permaculture Green Roofs – Green Roofs Grow Food, Clean Stormwater, Create Habitat and Reduce Carbon Footprint.

Websites:

WJM Architect
An interactive website by a friend and Architectural colleague, William J. Martin, AIA.

Standards:

Whole Building Design Guide
A robust gateway to up-to-date information on integrated ‘whole building’ design techniques and technologies. The WBDG is the only web-based portal providing government and industry practitioners with one-stop access to up-to-date information on a wide range of building-related guidance, criteria and technology from a ‘whole buildings’ perspective. Currently organized into three major categories—Design Guidance, Project Management and Operations & Maintenance—at the heart of the WBDG are Resource Pages, reductive summaries on particular topics.

Residential Cost Calculator
A residential cost estimator tool by my friend and Architectural colleague, William J. Martin, AIA.

 


Glossary of Green Terminologies

The following is a quick reference guide to get you started understanding the jargon associated with green design and construction. We hope you find it useful.

1,000 ppm

One thousandth parts per million is the minimum disclosure threshold. Manufacturer measures and discloses all intentionally added ingredients and residuals that exist in the product at 1000 ppm (0.1%) or greater. These may  trigger a GreenScreen Benchmark (BM-1 or LT-1) or Possible Benchmark 1 (BM-P1 or LT-P1).

10,000 ppm (As per MSDS)

Manufacturer discloses all intentionally added ingredients and residuals that exist in a product. This is the threshold that is required by current MSDS standards

100 ppm

One hundred parts per million is the ideal disclosure threshold. Manufacturer measures and discloses all intentionally added ingredients and residuals that exist in the product at 100 ppm (0.01%) or greater. These may trigger a GreenScreen Benchmark (BM-1 or LT-1) or Possible Benchmark 1 (BM-P1 or LT-P1).

Accessory Materials

Used for the installation, maintenance , cleaning and operations materials; including materials recommended by warranty. For example, if a carpet requires a specific type of adhesive. The adhesive would be the accessory materials.

Assessment

the evaluation of the toxicological properties (hazards) of chemicals; evaluates exposure and risk assessment in relation to both environmental and human health scenarios.

Associated Hazard

disclosure of the health hazards associated with each ingredient; Portico uses a minimum set of authoritative chemical hazard lists against which ingredients are screened for human health and environmental hazards.

Asthmagen

Asthmagens are substances that are known to cause or exacerbate asthma. Asthma is a complex disease, and there is not enough evidence to point to any single cause. Public health agencies often report dust, pet dander, environmental air pollution, tobacco smoke, respiratory infections, mold, exercise, and stress as common triggers of asthma attacks.

Health organizations have also identified a number chemical asthmagens, including many that are commonly used in building materials, such as floorings, insulations and cabinet substrates. These chemicals include: formaldehyde, toluene, styrene, BPA and certain phthalate plasticizers.

Despite better management of asthma through medication, improved outdoor air quality and a dramatic decline in tobacco smoking, the incidence of asthma has continued to rise, especially in children — and in particular among children who are living in poverty.

Authoritative chemical hazard lists

a list of chemicals and their association to human health or environmental hazards. These lists are created by an expert assessment of scientific evidence by a recognized authoritative body.

Biobased

“Biobased” is a term used in the marketing materials of many types of products. While biobased technically describes a product made from a living material (soybean oil, wool, etc.) marketing materials may stretch this definition to include minerals or other naturally occurring materials that aren’t renewable, or suggest that an entire product is made of biobased materials, when in fact only a small percentage of the product is.

Blowing Agent

A class of chemicals that can generate foam in materials, such as those used in insulation, which later harden or solidify into long-lasting structures. Many are known to possess extremely high global warming potential; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been mostly eliminated from new production since the 2000s, but hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are still prevalent. Blowing agents, as a class of products used in building product manufacture, are in an active transition toward healthier and more environmentally friendly options.

CAS Number

chemical abstract service number is a unique numerical identifier for every chemical described in open scientific literature of elements, chemical compounds, polymers and other substances.

Carcinogen/Cancer

Can cause or contribute to the development of cancer.

Characterization

identification and disclosure of ingredients and all hazards associated with ingredient components in the product/material formulation.

Common Product Profile

A profile of a generic, non-manufacturer-specific product type that contains: a brief description of the product type, the expected composition of the product based on publicly available sources, and corresponding health hazards inherent to this composition. Common Product Profiles (CPs) developed as part of the Quartz Project include additional information about the life cycle of the product, such as its contribution to global warming. See http://www.quartzproject.org/ for more information on CPs.

Developmental Toxicant

Can cause harm to a developing child, including birth defects, low birth weight, and biological or behavioral problems that appear as the child grows.

Disclosure Threshold

the level at which all intentionally added ingredients and residuals in the product/material formulation are disclosed (1,000 ppm, 100 ppm, or other). Different standards require specific disclosure threshold. MSDS (Materials Safety Data Sheets require minimum of 10,000ppm.

Endocrine/Hormone Disruptor

Can interfere with hormone communication between cells which controls metabolism, development, growth, reproduction, and behavior (the endocrine system). Linked to health effects such as obesity, diabetes, male reproductive disorders, and altered brain development.

Environmental Attributes

this information can be found in an EPD, LCA, or other studies of global warming impact, carbon content, and embodied energy. We recommend providing this information (when available) because it will be helpful for LEED and LBC regional credit documentation and carbon accounting.

Flame Retardants

Flame retardants are chemical additives to building products that reduce their flammability. They are commonly found in textiles, plastics, coatings, finishes and foams. Halogenated flame retardants – those made with chlorine or bromine – are particularly toxic to human health, and the planet.

Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD)

Flue-gas desulfurization is an environmental control technology installed in the smokestacks of coal-fired power plants designed to remove pollutants from the air. These controls are also called “scrubbers”. Once the scrubbers are full of sulfur dioxide, they are often used to create synthetic gypsum. FGD gypsum can be used in drywall, but also in concrete and other applications where mined gypsum can be used. FGD can contain heavy metals such as mercury that can be released into the air when it is incorporated into these products.

Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is a colorless gas used as a preservative and disinfectant in the building industry, and in the manufacture of polymers. Formaldehyde is carcinogenic, irritates the eyes, nose, and lungs, and is known to react with other atmospheric chemicals to produce the deadly gas carbon monoxide. Formaldehyde is used in some paints and adhesives, in some fabric treatments, and, significantly, in the manufacture of polymeric binding resins used in a wide variety of building products. Phenol formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde, and melamine formaldehyde are all known to release formaldehyde over time long after product installation in residential and commercial spaces.

Global Warming

Can absorb thermal radiation, increasing the temperature of the atmosphere and contributing to climate change.

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

Known as “greenhouse gasses,” certain gasses have the ability to warm the earth by absorbing heat from the sun and trapping it the atmosphere. Global Warming Potential is a tool that allows scientists to compare the severity of greenhouse gasses based on how much heat they can trap, and how long they remain in the atmosphere. By using carbon dioxide for each comparison, a larger GWP number, the more a gas warms the earth, and contributes to climate change.

Look for GWP data on Environmental Product Declarations, and learn more about interpreting these numbers at http://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/understanding-global-warming-potentials.

GreenScreen

short for “GreenScreen for Safer Chemicals”, a chemical disclosure and assessment standard  developed by Clean Production Action to rank chemicals along a four point scale between the most toxic chemicals and the most benign to guide substitution efforts.

HPD

also known as Health Product Declaration. It is a standardized format that allows manufacturers to share contents of their products, including any hazardous chemicals.

HPD-1

status marked for products that have a Health Product Declaration with full ingredient and hazard listings and a hazard translator with a disclosure threshold of 1000 or 100 ppm; can contain LT-1 scored components

HPD-2

status marked for products that have a Health Product Declaration with full ingredient and hazard listings and a hazard translator with a disclosure threshold of 1000 or 100 ppm; can NOT contain LT-1 scored components

HPD-Partial

status marked for products that have a Partial Health Product Declaration and have characterization of hazards and hazard translator for ingredients; exceptions are acceptable with a disclosure threshold of 1000 ppm

Hazard

Hazard is an intrinsic property of a substance – its potential to harm humans or some part of the environment based on its physical structure and properties. We can assess the hazard of a chemical or material by reviewing the scientific evidence for the specific kinds of harm that a substance can cause (often called the endpoints), such as damage to the human reproductive system, or the onset of asthma. On HomeFree, hazards are displayed with a color indicating the level of concern for each one. Purple is the highest level of concern, followed by red, and then orange.

Because very few products on the market are made with ingredients that have no hazards, you should expect to see hazards called out, even for products that are considered healthier options. The trick is to compare hazards between products, and whenever possible, prefer the product with fewer hazards.

Health Endpoint

A disease symptom or related marker of a health impact on a human or other organism. Examples of human health endpoints include carcinogenicity (causes cancer), reproductive and developmental toxicity, respiratory sensitization, etc. Health endpoints are due to the inherent hazards of a substance, and are determined by authoritative bodies, such as the US EPA or the National Institutes of Health.

Information Request Sent

this means that an email letter has been sent to the manufacturer requesting information about a specific product. This IR may ask the manufacturer to share HPD type data, a GreenScreen Assessment, or a C2C certification in order to meet Google’s Healthy Materials criteria

Intentional Content

each discrete chemical, polymer, metal, bio-based material, or other substance added to the product by the manufacturer or supplier that exists in the product as delivered for final use requires its own line entry and must account for over 99% of the total product. To add content you may enter it by using a CAS registry number, chemical name, abbreviations, common/ trade names, genus/species (for biobased materials), product or manufacturer name (for components)

Inventory

list of product contents, ingredients

Lifecycle

In biology, the term “lifecycle” describes the arc an organism undergoes from birth, through stages of growth and development, to its death. When applied to building products, “lifecycle”describes the arc that chemicals or materials take from the extraction of the raw materials needed for their creation, through their synthesis and inclusion in a building product, the period of time that the product is installed in a building, its eventual removal from the building, and its disposal/reuse/recycling at the end of its useful life. Products (and the chemicals and materials used to make them) often present human and environmental health hazards at any step in this lifecycle.

Material Health

listing the ingredients and present chemical hazards of a product and optimizing towards safer materials

Mutagen

Can cause or increase the rate of mutations, which are changes in the genetic material in cells. This can result in cancer and birth defects.

Optimization

the absence of any “chemicals of concern” in the product/material formulation.

Ozone Depletion

Can contribute to chemical reactions that destroy ozone in the earth’s upper atmosphere.

PBTs

Persistent, Bio-accumulative Toxicants; these are chemicals that are toxic, persist in the environment, bioaccumulate in the food chains, and consequently pose risks to the human health and environment

Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicant (PBT)

Does not break down readily from natural processes, accumulates in organisms, concentrating as it moves up the food chain, and is harmful in small quantities.

Portico

formerly known as the Healthy Materials Tool; is a new portal for entering and accessing building  product data. Portico is a database that allows project teams unparalleled access to a vast selection of building products. Portico automatically screens manufacturer product information so that products are available in front of Google’s design teams right away.

Predicted from Process Chemistry

Fully disclosed projected residuals based on process chemistry. This option is suggested for manufacturers without the capability of measuring actual residuals. Indicate the tool or other basis for prediction in the Disclosure Notes. The HBN Pharos tool is an example of a tool that predicts potential residuals.

Publish

share HPD information solely to Google, not to general public. If public, please share public URL in the transparency section

Reproductive Toxicant

Can disrupt the male or female reproductive systems, changing sexual development, behavior or functions, decreasing fertility, or resulting in loss of a fetus during pregnancy.

Residual Content

the by-product of a reaction of two or more chemicals that are used in the manufacturing process; known as trace substances remaining in the product from manufacturing steps (such as monomers and catalysts) or contaminants that come with raw materials. Residuals can be known from testing as well as estimated from process chemistry assessment. Predicted from Process Chemistry definition noted above.

Respiratory Sensitization/Asthmagen

Can result in high sensitivity such that small quantities trigger asthma, rhinitis, or other allergic reactions in the respiratory system. This can can exacerbate current asthma as well as cause the disease of asthma.

Screening

review contents against authoritative chemical hazard lists. Health Product Declaration standard uses screening as a pathway to understand and assess products for any human health hazard endpoints.

Self-declared

a product disclosure and screening/assessment which is created “in-house” by the manufacturer of the product, and does not utilize a third party assessor.

Third Party Assessor

an independent assessment body which is not affiliated with the manufacturer or the product.

Tint

Tints are a mix of pigments and other ingredients that give paints their distinct color. These tints can be a substantial source of VOC content in addition to whatever VOCs are in the paint itself. Darker and richer colors will tend to be higher in VOC content. Some manufacturers have developed low or zero VOC tint lines that can be used to insure that a low VOC paint product remains so even in dark or rich colors.

Transparency

the level of product/material formulation information (including ingredients names and associated hazards) being shared by the manufacturer with the end users (i.e. public, third party, Google).  Portico’s transparency category gives points to manufacturers who share product information (HPD) publicly rather than just to Google.

VOC

Volatile Organic Compound

VOC Content

provide the regulatory VOC content  for liquid/wet applied product in g/L; if the VOC content has not been third party certified and there is no standard for the product, indicate “none” on the VOC content line. If the product is not wet applied, indicate N/A

VOC Emission

emissions testing and certification for any product for which the current version of the CDPH (CA Department of Public Health) Standard Method provides emission scenarios

VOCs

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) means any compound of carbon (excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate), which react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight.

Verification

assessments verified by an independent, third party assessor, in compliance with specific requirements pertaining to the standard at hand.

Zero VOC

5 g/L cutoff threshold recognized by SCAQMD for products that are Zero VOC

ppm

parts per million (1,000 ppm = 0.1%; 100 ppm = 0.01%).

(Source: https://homefree.healthybuilding.net/glossary)

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,

FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


13 Examples of Green Architecture

The Morris & Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation Environmental Center

The nickname for the Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation Environmental Center is the Grass Building, and it perfectly captures its spirit. It’s a structure so thoughtfully designed it’s almost as energy-efficient and low impact as the greenery that surrounds it.

The Maryland building is part of an educational farm on the Potomac River Watershed that the Alice Ferguson Foundation used to teach people about the natural world. This new building—which became the 13th in the world to receive full Living Building Challenge certification in June 2017—is an educational facility designed to blur the lines between indoors and out, while still providing shelter as needed. “Part of the intent of the building is to be in the landscape and still have a bathroom to use,” says Scott Kelly, principal-in-charge at Re:Vision, a Philadelphia-based architecture and design studio.

Further Reading:
https://gbdmagazine.com/2017/grass-building
https://www.aia.org/showcases/92581-the-morris–gwendolyn-cafritz-foundation-env
https://living-future.org/lbc/case-studies/morris-gwendolyn-cafritz-foundation-environmental-center
http://hughloftingtimberframe.com/gallery/commercial/cafritz-foundation-environmental-center
http://www.cafritzfoundation.org/

Brock Environmental Center

Drawing thousands of students, the Brock Environmental Center is a regional hub for the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, in Virginia Beach, Virginia, supporting its education and wetlands restoration initiatives. A connection to nature defines the building’s siting, which provides sweeping views of the marsh and also anticipates sea-level rise and storm surges with its raised design. Parts were sourced from salvage: Its maple floors once belonged to a local gymnasium while school bleachers, complete with graffiti, were used for interior wood trim. The center was recognized for its positive footprint: It has composting toilets, captures and treats rainfall for use as drinking water, and produces 80 percent more energy than it uses, selling the excess to the grid.

Further Reading:
http://www.cbf.org/about-cbf/locations/virginia/facilities/brock-environmental-center
https://living-future.org/lbc/case-studies/the-chesapeake-bay-brock-environmental-center
https://www.visitvirginiabeach.com/listing/chesapeake-bay-foundations-brock-environmental-center/979
https://www.aia.org/showcases/76311-brock-environmental-center

Discovery Elementary School

Students have three distinct, age-appropriate playgrounds—with natural elements such as rocks and fallen trees—at Arlington, Virginia’s Discovery Elementary School. The name honors astronaut John Glenn, who returned to space on the Discovery shuttle and once lived in the neighborhood. Exploration is a theme at the school, whose interior focuses on forests, oceans, atmosphere, and the solar system. The largest zero-energy school in the country, it offers “hands-on learning around energy efficiency and generation,” jurors noted. The school maximizes natural light and provides views to the outside in all classrooms.

Further Reading:
https://www.aia.org/showcases/71481-discovery-elementary-school-
https://www.aiadc.com/sites/default/files/031%20-%20DiscoveryElementarySchool.pdf
https://www.google.com/search?q=Discovery+Elementary+School+AIA&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjS-pnHo6LcAhUMON8KHSlUDlYQsAQIdA&biw=1583&bih=1187

Bristol Community College

A laboratory is an energy-intensive enterprise, with specialized lighting and ventilation needs. That’s why jurors praised the airy health and science building at Bristol Community College, in Fall River, Massachusetts, for its net-zero energy achievement, “a difficult feat,” they noted, “in a cold climate like New England’s.” The move saves $103,000 in annual operating costs and allows the college, which offers a suite of courses in sustainability and energy, to practice what it teaches. Part of a holistic campus redesign, the new building’s location increases the density—and thus walkability—of campus for students.

Further Reading:
https://www.aia.org/showcases/71576-bristol-community-college-john-j-sbrega-heal
https://www.mass.gov/service-details/bristol-community-college-john-j-sbrega-health-and-science-building
http://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/bristol-community-college-john-j-sbrega-health-and-science-building_o

Central Energy Facility

Orange and red pipes flaunt their role in “heat recovery” at Stanford University’s Central Energy Facility. The center for powering the California campus—more than a thousand buildings—the facility was transformed from an aging gas-fired plant to one fueled mostly by an off-site solar farm, fulfilling a goal of carbon neutrality and reducing energy use by a third. With large health care and research buildings, the campus needs as much heating as cooling; now a unique recovery system taps heat created in cooling processes to supply 93 percent of the heating and hot water required for campus buildings. The plant reduces Stanford emissions by 68 percent and potable water usage by 18 percent, potentially saving millions of dollars and one of the state’s scarce resources.

Further Reading:
https://www.aia.org/showcases/25976-stanford-university-central-energy-facility
https://sustainable.stanford.edu/new-system
https://www.archdaily.com/786168/stanford-university-central-energy-facility-zgf-architects
https://www.zgf.com/project/stanford-university-central-energy-facility

Ng Teng Fong General Hospital

Like other buildings in Singapore, Ng Teng Fong General Hospital incorporates parks, green roofs, and vertical plantings throughout its campus. But the city-state’s hospitals haven’t traditionally offered direct access to fresh air, light, and outdoor views. This hospital marks a dramatic change, optimizing each for patients. About 70 percent of the facility is naturally ventilated and cooled by fans, cross-ventilation, and exterior shading, saving on precious water resources. The building uses 38 percent less energy than a typical hospital in the area.

Further Reading:
https://www.aia.org/showcases/76821-ng-teng-fong-general-hospital–jurong-commun
http://www.hok.com/about/news/2017/07/25/ng_teng_fong_general_international_academy_for_design_and_health_awards
https://www.archdaily.com/869556/aia-selects-top-10-most-sustainable-projects-of-2017/58f7c23ce58eceac31000615-aia-selects-top-10-most-sustainable-projects-of-2017-photo
http://www.topicarchitecture.com/articles/154396-how-modern-hospitals-recognize-the-impact-o

Eden Hall Farm, Chatham University

After receiving the donation of 388-acre Eden Hall Farm, 20 miles north, Pittsburgh’s Chatham University created a satellite campus centered around a sustainable living experiment. The university views the landscape—an agricultural area adjacent to an urban center—as critical to supporting cities of the future. The original buildings are complemented by new facilities for 250 residential students (and eventually 1,200), including a dormitory, greenhouse, dining commons, and classrooms. Students get hands-on experience in renewable energy systems—the campus generates more than it uses—sustainable agriculture and aquaculture, waste treatment, and water management. Now home to the Falk School of Sustainability, the farm is producing the next generation of environmental stewards, who follow in the footsteps of alum Rachel Carson.

Further Reading:
https://www.aia.org/showcases/76481-chatham-university-eden-hall-campus
http://www.chatham.edu/news/index.php/2018/01/chatham-views/from-eden-hall-pioneer-to-farm-manager
https://www.archdaily.com/869556/aia-selects-top-10-most-sustainable-projects-of-2017
https://falk.chatham.edu/masterplan.cfm

Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University

At George Washington University’s Milken Institute School of Public Health, located in the nation’s capital, design embodies well-being. Built around an atrium that admits light and air, the structure encourages physical activity with a staircase that spans its eight levels. A green roof reduces storm runoff; rainwater is collected and stored for plumbing, resulting in a 41 percent reduction in toilet fixtures’ water use. Limestone panels (left) were salvaged from the previous building on the site. Materials used throughout the building contain recycled content.

Further Reading:
https://www.aia.org/showcases/71306-milken-institute-school-of-public-health
https://publichealth.gwu.edu/content/milken-institute-school-public-health-wins-excellence-architecture-new-building-merit-award
http://designawards.architects.org/projects/honor-awards-for-design-excellence/milken-institute-school-of-public-health-george-washington-university/

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Inouye Regional Center

Located at the heart of Pearl Harbor, on Oahu’s Ford Island, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Inouye Regional Center repurposed two airplane hangars—which narrowly escaped destruction in the 1941 attack—linking them with a new steel and glass building (right). The research and office facility for 800 employees was raised to guard it from rising sea levels. Given the size of the hangars, daylight illuminated only a small fraction of the space, so specially crafted lanterns reflect sunlight further into their interiors. Necessity required invention: Due to anti-terrorism regulations, no operable windows were allowed in the space. Through a passive downdraft system that taps prevailing sea breezes, the building is completely naturally ventilated. The adjacent waterfront was returned to a more natural state with native vegetation.

Further Reading:
https://www.aia.org/showcases/76911-noaa-daniel-k-inouye-regional-center
http://www.hpbmagazine.org/NOAA-Daniel-K-Inouye-Regional-Center-Honolulu-Hawaii/
http://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/noaa-daniel-k-inouye-regional-center_o
http://www.hok.com/design/type/government/national-oceanic-and-atmospheric-administration-noaa/

R.W. Kern Center

Serving as the gateway to Hampshire College, in Amherst, Massachusetts, the multipurpose R.W. Kern Center holds classrooms, offices, a café, and gallery space—and is the place where prospective students are introduced to campus. The school converted what was once an oval driveway into a wildflower meadow, now encouraging a pedestrian approach (seen above). The center is self-sustaining, generating its own energy through a rooftop solar array, harvesting its water from rainfall, and processing its own waste. Its gray water treatment system is in a pilot program for the state, and may pave the way for others.

Further Reading:
https://www.aia.org/showcases/76921-rw-kern-center
https://architizer.com/projects/rw-kern-center
https://www.hampshire.edu/discover-hampshire/rw-kern-center

Manhattan 1/2/5 Garage & Salt Shed

Two buildings belonging to New York City’s sanitation department redefine municipal architecture. Resembling a grain of salt, the cubist form of the Spring Street Salt Shed holds 5,000 tons for clearing icy streets. The Manhattan 1/2/5 Garage (background), whose floors are color-coded for each of the three districts, is home to 150 vehicles, wash and repair facilities, and space for 250 workers. The garage is wrapped in 2,600 aluminum “fins,” shading devices that pivot with the sun’s rays, reducing heat gain and glare through the glazed walls while still allowing views to the outside. Municipal steam heats and cools the building, so no fuels are burned. A 1.5-acre green roof reduces heat-island effect and filters rainwater. A condensate by-product of the steam is also captured, and, along with the rainwater, used for toilets and the truck wash. Combined with low-flow fixtures, the process reduced water consumption by 77 percent.

Further Reading:
https://www.dattner.com/portfolio/manhattan-districts-125-garage/
https://www.ohny.org/site-programs/weekend/sites/dsny-manhattan-125-sanitation-garage-salt-shed
https://www.aia.org/showcases/76671-manhattan-districts-125-garage–spring-stree
http://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/manhattan-districts-1-2-5-garage-spring-street-salt-shed_o
https://www.burns-group.com/project/manhattan-125-garage-and-spring-street-salt-shed/

Starbucks Hillsboro, Oregon

Starbucks has been a leader in the development and implementation of a scalable green building program for over a decade .Starbucks joined the U.S. Green Building Council® (USGBC) in 2001 and collaborated with them to develop the LEED® for Retail program, an effort to adapt LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) to new construction and commercial interior strategies for retail businesses. In 2008,Starbucks challenged themselves to use LEED certification not just for flagship stores and larger buildings, but for all new, company-operated stores. Many people, even internally, were skeptical, especially with Starbucks growth across the globe. But by collaborating with USGBC and other like-minded organizations, we have been able to integrate green building design not only into new stores but also into our existing store portfolio. Starbucks has also succeeded in providing a practical certification option for retailers of all sizes.

Further Reading:
https://www.starbucks.com/responsibility/environment/leed-certified-stores

The Edge, Deloitte

The Edge, located in Amsterdam, is a model of sustainability.is billed as the world’s most sustainable office building and has the certification to prove it. But, it’s more than that. The place is, well, fun. And interesting. And inviting. So much so that professionals are actually applying for employment with Deloitte Netherlands because they want to work in the building. That it has become a recruiting tool is a satisfying side effect of a project designed to both redefine efficiency and change the way people work. “We wanted to ensure that our building not only had the right sustainability credentials, but was also a real innovative and inspiring place for our employees,” says Deloitte Netherlands CEO Peter Bommel.

Read the rest of this entry »


High Performance Building Design

Green-Building

970 Denny, a residential high-rise under construction in South Lake Union, used early energy modeling to demonstrate that efficiency from the water source heat pump system would offset increased thermal loss from expansive glazing.

The Federal EPA has implemented several strategies to enhance sustainability, including:

  • Conducting retro-commissioning and re-commissioning to improve energy performance
  • Using the most efficient heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment and lighting
  • Assessing for compliance with ventilation and thermal comfort standards
  • Installing renewable energy systems
  • Replacing plumbing fixtures with higher efficiency models
  • Installing advanced energy and water meters
  • Reducing irrigated landscape areas
  • Retrofitting buildings and landscapes with low impact development features
  • Using integrated pest management techniques
  • Contracting green cleaning services
  • Purchasing environmentally preferable materials
  • Implementing materials reduction, reuse, recycling and composting programs

Airtight construction controls the transfer of heat and moisture into and through the building envelope. Thermal bridge-free assemblies avoid the envelope penetrations that sap buildings of energy, comfort, and durability. Continuous insulation keeps heat where it’s wanted. Excellent windows and doors limit heat loss while capturing daylight and passive solar energy. Shading elements shield the building from passive solar gains when unwanted. And a constant supply of filtered fresh air comes in through a balanced heat recovery (or energy recovery) ventilation system that recaptures the thermal energy of exhaust air and keeps it inside the building. “Envelope-first” focus design consideration dramatically reduces the energy demand to heat and cool high-performance building. In fact, Passive House buildings routinely reduce heating and cooling energy by up to 90%.

(Source: https://hammerandhand.com/field-notes/what-is-high-performance-building)

Green-Building-WorldThe research will further build on the results of the Well Living Lab’s latest study findings, published in Building and Environment. The study found that temperature, noise, and lighting in open office environments affect employees’ ability to get work done. This was a proof-of concept study that demonstrated the strength of living lab methodology in measuring realistic occupant responses to select environmental changes in an open office. Specifically, it indicated that employees are most sensitive to thermal conditions, followed by work-related noise such as conversations and lack of natural light from windows when working in open office environments. These factors affected work environment satisfaction, productivity, and even carried over into the mood of employees and their sleep.

(Source: https://facilityexecutive.com/2018/03/indoor-environments-impact-on-wellness-to-be-studied)

Further Reading:

Goining-Green-QuestionWe would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


Connected Spaces

Connected-Life

The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

Connected spaces are networked to enable the interconnection and interoperability of multiple devices, services and apps, ranging from communications and entertainment to healthcare, security and home automation. These services and apps are delivered over multiple interlinked and integrated devices, sensors, tools and platforms. Connected, real-time, smart and contextual experiences are provided for the household inhabitants, and individuals are enabled to control and monitor the home remotely as well as within it.

Connected-HomeThe technologies behind connected spaces can be grouped in the following categories:

  • Networking: Familiar networking technologies (high bandwidth/high power consumption), such as Multimedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA), Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, as well as 3G and Long Term Evolution (LTE), are complemented with low-power consumption networking standards for devices and sensors that require low bandwidth and consume very little power, such as thermostats.
  • Media and Entertainment: This category, which covers integrated entertainment systems and includes accessing and sharing digital content across different devices, has proved to be the most prolific and contains some of the most mature technologies in the connected home.
  • Security, Monitoring and Automation: The technologies in this category cover a variety of services that focus on monitoring and protecting the home as well as the remote and automated control of doors, windows, blinds and locks, heating/air conditioning, lighting and home appliances, and more.
  • Energy Management: This category is tightly linked to smart cities and government initiatives, yet consumer services and devices/apps are being introduced at mass-market prices that allow people to track, control and monitor their gas/electricity consumption.
  • Healthcare, Fitness and Wellness: Solutions and services around healthcare have proven slow to take off, because they have to be positioned within a health plan and sold to hospitals and health insurance companies. The fitness and wellness segment has strong and quickly developed ecosystems that range from devices to sports wares to apps, which integrate seamlessly with each other to create a strong customer experience.

(Source: https://www.gartner.com)

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


Benefits of Using Digital Twins for Construction

Technologies like augmented reality in construction are emerging to digitalize the construction industry, making it significantly more effective.

What if we could have instant access to all the information about a construction site, down to smallest details about every person, tool, and bolt? What if we could always be sure about the final measurements of a beam or that soil volumes in the cuts are close to those of the fills? What if we could always track how fast the supply of materials runs out, and re-order supplies automatically?

All this is achievable with a digital twin — a concept of having a real-time digital representation of a physical object.

The following are some real-time digital twins applications on construction sites.

3d-model

Automated Progress Monitoring

Progress monitoring verifies that the completed work is consistent with plans and specifications. A physical site observation is needed in order to verify the reported percentage of work done and determine the stage of the project.

By reconstructing an as-built state of a building or structure we can compare it with an as-planned execution in BIM and take corresponding actions to correct any deviations. This is usually done by reconstructing geometry of a building and registering it to the model coordinate systems, which is later compared to an as-planned model on a shape and object level.

Often data for progress monitoring is collected through the field personnel and can be hugely subjective. For example, the reported percentage of work done can be faster in the beginning and much slower close to the end of the project. People are often initially more optimistic about their progress and the time needed to finish the job.

Hence, having automated means of data collection and comparison means that the resulting model to as-designed BIM models is less liable to human error. Digital twins solve the common construction process problems.

As-Built vs As-Designed Models

With a real-time digital twins, it is possible to track changes in an as-built model — daily and hourly. Early detection of any discrepancies can lead to a detailed analysis of historical modeling data, which adds an additional layer of information for any further decision-making processes.

The project manager can then reconstruct the steps that led to the error and make changes in the future work schedule in order to prevent any similar mistakes from occurring. They can also detect under-performers and try to fix the cause of the problem earlier in the project or plan the necessary changes to the budget and timescale of the whole project.

Resource Planning and Logistics

According to the Construction Industry Institute, about 25% of productive time is wasted on unnecessary movement and handling of materials.

Digital twin technology provides automatic resource allocation monitoring and waste tracking, allowing for a predictive and lean approach to resource management. With digital twin technology companies would avoid over-allocation and dynamically predict resource requirements on construction sites, thus avoiding the need to move resources over long distances and improving time management.

Safety Monitoring

The construction industry is one of the most dangerous sectors in the world. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the United States, more than four thousand construction workers died on-site between 2008 and 2012.

The real-time site reconstruction feature digital twins allows the industry’s companies to track people and hazardous places on a site, so as to prevent inappropriate behavior, usage of unsafe materials, and activity in hazardous zones. A company can develop a system of early notification, letting a construction manager know when a field worker is located in dangerous proximity to working equipment and sending a notification about nearby danger to a worker’s wearable device.

Microsoft recently shared a great vision of how AI combined with video cameras and mobile devices can be used to build an extensive safety net for the workplace.

Quality Assessment

Image-processing algorithms make it possible to check the condition of concrete through a video or photographic image. It is also possible to check for cracks on columns or any material displacement at a construction site. This would trigger additional inspections and thus help to detect possible problems early on.

See an example of how 2D images using 3D scene reconstruction can be used for concrete crack assessments.

Optimization of Equipment Usage

Equipment utilization is an important metric that construction firms always want to maximize. Unused machines should be released earlier to the pool so others can use them on other sites where they are needed. With advanced imaging and automatic tracking, it is possible to know how many times each piece of machinery has been used, at what part of the construction site, and on what type of the job.

Monitoring and Tracking of Workers

Some countries impose tough regulations on how to monitor people presence on a construction site. This includes having a digital record of all personnel and their location within the site, so that this information could be used by rescue teams in case of emergency. This monitoring is another digital twins application. Still, it is better to integrate digital twin-based monitoring with an automatic entry and exit registration system, to have a multi-modal data fused into a single analytics system.

Getting Data for Digital Twins

Some ways to gather data to be used for digital twins includes the following:

  1. Smartphone Cameras
  2. Time-Lapse Cameras
  3. Autonomous UAV and Robots
  4. Video Surveillance Cameras
  5. Head-mounted Cameras and Body Cameras

Image data processing algorithms for digital twins can be created with the following methods:

  1. 3D Reconstruction: Conventional Photogrammetry
  2. 3D Reconstruction: Structure from Motion
  3. Object Detection and Recognition
  4. Localization
  5. Object Tracking

(Source: https://www.intellectsoft.net/blog/advanced-imaging-algorithms-for-digital-twin-reconstruction)

From an Investor’s Viewpoint

On projects to date, this approach has proven to save time, reduce waste and increase efficiencies.

From a Standardization Proponent’s Viewpoint

Open, sharable information unlocks more efficient, transparent and collaborative ways of working throughout the entire life-cycle of buildings and infrastructure.

From a Solution Provider’s Viewpoint 

While the digital twin is needed initially for planning and construction, it’s also intended to provide the basis for building operations moving forward.

(Source: https://www.siemens.com/customer-magazine/en/home/buildings/three-perspectives-on-digital-twins.html)

The vision of “construction 4.0” refers to the 4th industrial revolution and is a fundamental challenge for the construction industry. In terms of automated production and level of digitalization, the construction industry is still significantly behind other industries. Nevertheless, the mega-trends like Big Data or the Internet of Things offer great opportunities for the future development of the construction sector. Prerequisite for the successful Construction 4.0 is the creation of a digital twin of a building. Building Information Modeling (BIM) with a consistent and structured data management is the key to generate such a digital building whose dynamic performance can be studied by building simulation tools for a variety of different boundary conditions.

Along the total life cycle from design to construction, operation and maintenance towards remodeling or demolition, the digital twin follows all modifications of the real building and dynamically readjusts itself in case of recorded performance differences.

Thus, for the whole life span of the real building, performance predictions generated with the virtual twin represent an accurate basis for well-informed decisions. This helps to develop cost-effective operation modes, e.g. by introducing new cyber-controlled HVAC systems. The digital twin may also analyze the building’s dynamic response to changes in occupation or energy supply; it also indicates the need for building maintenance or upgrades.

The digital twin follows all modifications of the real building and dynamically readjusts itself in case of recorded performance differences.

(Source: https://www.bau.fraunhofer.de/en/fieldsofresearch/smartbuilding/digital-twin.html)

Gartner-digital-twin-best-practices-to-tackle-challenges

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


Smart Cities

Smart-City-in-a-BoxSmart cities use data and technology to create efficiencies, improve sustainability,
create economic development, and enhance quality of life factors for people living and
working in the city. It also means that the city has a smarter energy infrastructure.

(Source: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_city)

  • Emerging trends such as automation, machine learning and the internet of things
    (IoT) are driving smart city adoption.
  • Smart transit companies are able to coordinate services and fulfill riders' needs in real time, improving efficiency and rider satisfaction. Ride-sharing and bike-sharing are also common services in a smart city.
  • Energy conservation and efficiency are major focuses of smart cities. Using smart sensors, smart streetlights dim when there aren't cars or pedestrians on
    the roadways. Smart grid technology can be used to improve operations, maintenance and planning, and to supply power on demand and monitor energy
    outages.
  • Using sensors to measure water parameters and guarantee the quality of
    drinking water at the front end of the system, with proper wastewater removal
    and drainage at the back end.
  • Smart city technology is increasingly being used to improve public safety, from
    monitoring areas of high crime to improving emergency preparedness with sensors. For example, smart sensors can be critical components of an early warning system before droughts, floods, landslides or hurricanes.
  • Smart buildings are also often part of a smart city project. Legacy infrastructure can be retrofitted and new buildings constructed with sensors to not only provide real-time space management and ensure public safety, but also to monitor the structural health of buildings.
    Singapore Financial District skyline at dusk.
  • Smart technology will help cities sustain growth and improve efficiency for citizen
    welfare and government efficiency in urban areas in the years to come.
    Water meters and manhole covers are just a couple of the other city components
    monitored by smart sensors. Free and/or publicly available Wi-Fi is another perk smart cities often include.
  • San Diego installed 3,200 smart sensors in early 2017 to optimize traffic and parking
    and enhance public safety, environmental awareness and overall livability for its
    residents. Solar-to-electric charging stations are available to empower electric vehicle use, and connected cameras help monitor traffic and pinpoint crime.
  • Often considered the gold standard of smart cities, the city-state of Singapore uses
    sensors and IoT-enabled cameras to monitor the cleanliness of public spaces, crowd
    density and the movement of locally registered vehicles. Its smart technologies help
    companies and residents monitor energy use, waste production and water use in real time. Singapore is also testing autonomous vehicles, including full-size robotic buses, as well as an elderly monitoring system to ensure the health and well-being of its senior citizens.
  • In Dubai, United Arab Emirates, smart city technology is used for traffic routing, parking, infrastructure planning and transportation. The city also uses telemedicine and smart healthcare, as well as smart buildings, smart utilities, smart education and smart tourism.
    Smart City Barcelona Spain
  • The Barcelona, Spain, smart transportation system and smart bus systems are complemented by smart bus stops that provide free Wi-Fi, USB charging stations and bus schedule updates for riders. A bike-sharing program and smart parking app that includes online payment options are also available. The city also uses sensors to monitor temperature, pollution and noise, as well as monitor humidity and rain levels.

(Sources: https://internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com/definition/smart-city and https://www.engadget.com/2016/11/03/singapore-smart-nation-smart-city/)

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


Big Data in Architecture

Big-Data-02Big data is a term that describes the large volume of data – both structured and unstructured – that inundates a business on a day-to-day basis. But it’s not the amount of data that’s important. It’s what organizations do with the data that matters. Big data can be analyzed for insights that lead to better decisions and strategic business moves.

(Source: https://www.sas.com/en_us/insights/big-data/what-is-big-data.html)

In buildings, data might be generated by a very wide variety of sources, including:

  • Design and construction (for example building information modeling)
  • Post occupancy evaluation
  • Utilities, building services, meters, building management systems and so on
  • Infrastructure and transport systems
  • Enterprise systems such as purchasing systems, performance reporting, work
    scheduling and so on
  • Maintenance and replacement systems
  • Operational cost monitoring
  • Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems and equipment

Data from these sources can be used to understand behavior, assess
performance, improve market competitiveness, allocate resources and so on.
Smart buildings focus on the use of these interconnected technologies to make
buildings more intelligent and responsive, ultimately improving their performance, and
might include technologies such as:

  • Automated systems
  • Intelligent building management systems
  • Energy efficiency measures
  • Wireless technologies
  • Digital infrastructures
  • Adaptive energy systems
  • Networked appliances
  • Data gathering devices
  • Information and communications networks
  • Assistive technologies
  • Remote monitoring
  • Fault diagnostics and prognostics

(Source:https://medium.com/studiotmd/designing-with-data-8fd73345afb8)

Big-Data-01{Repost} How Big Data is Transforming Architecture

The phenomenon presents huge opportunities for the built environment and the firms that design it.

Clients are demanding data from architects

Clients are starting to ask architects to deliver more than just drawing sets. They are eyeing the data-rich BIM models that firms use to document projects as a way to supply data for downstream applications, such as facilities management.

With BIM achieving some level of maturity within the industry, there is a growing expectation that architects will produce datasets, such as the COBie (Construction-Operations Building Information Exchange) spreadsheet, as part of their regular deliverables. The COBie spreadsheet is essentially a list of building assets—such as chairs and HVAC systems—that the owner can then use to manage the facility. Next year, the U.K. government will require architects working on any publicly funded project to produce COBie spreadsheets. For architects, this means that their data needs to be as rigorous as their drawings.

Clients are demanding data from buildings

Clients have also become interested in the data generated by the buildings. As previously mentioned, everything from thermostats to doors is being connected to the Internet so it can broadcast its use. At last year’s Venice Biennale, the exhibition’s director Rem Koolhaas, Hon. FAIA, predicted that “every architectural element is about to associate itself with data-driven technology.”

This data enables building owners to measure and improve their facilities’ performance quantitatively. Many are already doing this—albeit in a limited sense—with their HVAC systems. But what we are seeing from innovative building owners is the use of data to conduct a holistic assessment of their performance. The Walt Disney Co., for example, combines location tracking with sales data and other user-experience metrics to optimize the performance of its parks. As more owners come to rely on building data to improve the performance of their assets, architects need to ensure that their buildings can supply this critical data.

Data is changing the process as much as it is changes the output

The abundance of data may give rise to data warehouses and COBie spreadsheets, but the much more profound changes for architects will be procedural. For instance, using BIM to design and document a building has required a whole new set of business processes. The building might be visually similar to what would have been designed in the past, but everything behind the scenes, from contract wording to staff training, needs to be rethought.

(Source: http://www.architectmagazine.com/technology/how-big-data-is-transforming-architecture_o)

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


The 7 Dimensions of Building Information Modeling

It has increasingly become crystal clear that BIM represents the opening of the architectural design community and construction industry to interoperability. There is no doubt that it’s a long and tedious way to being fully developed, however, important steps have been made during the last decades and the future of construction looks brighter day by day.

What is BIM?
3D-House

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the process of creating information models containing both graphical and non-graphical information in a Common Data Environment (CDE) (a shared repository for digital project information). The information that is created becomes ever more detailed as a project progresses with the complete dataset then handed to a client at completion to use in the building’s In Use phase and potentially on into a decommissioning phase.

When we talk about BIM maturity we are essentially talking about the supply chain’s ability to exchange information digitally. The maturity levels from Level 0, through Levels 1, 2, 3 and beyond are often visualized via the maturity ‘wedge’ diagram conceived by Mark Bew and Mervyn Richards. Our article on BIM Levels Explained is a good place to start if you’re looking for more information.

BIM dimensions are different to BIM maturity levels. They refer to the particular way in which particular kinds of data are linked to an information model. By adding additional dimensions of data you can start to get a fuller understanding of your construction project – how it will be delivered, what it will cost and how it should be maintained etc. These dimensions – 4D, 5D and 6D BIM – can all feasibly (but not necessarily) occur within a BIM Level 2 workflow.

In this blog post we explore what it means to add different dimensions of information to a BIM process and explore what this looks like in practice and what benefits might be expected.

7D BIM

3D (The Shared Information Model)

3D BIM is perhaps the BIM we are most familiar with – the process of creating graphical and non-graphical information and sharing this information in a Common Data Environment (CDE).

As the project lifecycle progresses this information becomes ever more rich in detail until the point at which the project data is handed over to a client at completion.
4D (Construction sequencing)

4D BIM adds an extra dimension of information to a project information model in the form of scheduling data. This data is added to components which will build in detail as the project progresses. This information can be used to obtain accurate programme information and visualisations showing how your project will develop sequentially.

Time-related information for a particular element might include information on lead time, how long it takes to install/construct, the time needed to become operational/harden/cure, the sequence in which components should be installed, and dependencies on other areas of the project.

With time information federated in the shared information model planners should be able to develop an accurate project programme. With the data linked to the graphical representation of components/systems it becomes easy to understand and query project information and it is also possible to show how construction will develop, sequentially, over time showing how a structure will visually appear at each stage.

Working in this way is enormously helpful when it comes to planning work to ensure it is safely, logically and efficiently sequenced. Being able to prototype how assets come together before ground is broken on site allows for feedback at an early stage and avoids wasteful and costly on-site design co-ordination and rework. Showing how projects will be constructed visually is also handy when engaging with stakeholders, giving everyone a clear visual understanding of planned works and what the finished construction will look like with no surprises.

Adding sequencing information can be extremely useful, not just in the design phase, but earlier too, allowing for the feasibility of schemes to be assessed from the off. At tender stage this kind of information can allow initial concepts to be explored and communicated to inspire confidence in the team’s ability to meet the brief.

It’s important to note that working with 4D information doesn’t negate the need for planners who remain an integral part of the project team. Rather than creating programs as proposals develop, as is the case in traditional workflows, in a digital workflow planners can now influence and shape proposals from a much earlier stage in a project. Indeed, by being closer to the wider project team and providing feedback earlier in the process, there is the potential for planners to add significantly more value to a construction project.

3D-Guggenheim-Model5D (Cost)

Drawing on the components of the information model being able to extract accurate cost information is what’s at the heart of 5D BIM.

Considerations might include capital costs (the costs of purchasing and installing a component), its associated running costs and the cost of renewal/replacement down the line. These calculations can be made on the basis of the data and associated information linked to particular components within the graphical model. This information allows cost managers to easily extrapolate the quantities of a given component on a project, applying rates to those quantities, thereby reaching an overall cost for the development.

The benefits of a costing approach linked to a model include the ability to easily see costs in 3D form, get notifications when changes are made, and the automatic counting of components/systems attached to a project. However, it’s not just cost managers who stand to benefit from considering cost as part of your BIM process. Assuming the presence of 4D program data and a clear understanding of the value of a contract, you can easily track predicted and actual spend over the course of a project. This allows for regular cost reporting and budgeting to ensure efficiencies are realized and the project itself stays within budget tolerances.

The accuracy of any cost calculations is, of course, reliant on the data produced by multiple teams and shared within the Common Data Environment. If that information is inaccurate, so too will be any calculations that rely upon it. In this respect using BIM to consider cost is no different to more traditional ways of working. It is for this reason that quantity surveyors and estimators still have an important role to play, not only in checking the accuracy of information but also in helping to interpret and fill information ‘gaps’. Many elements of a project will still be modelled in 2D or not at all. There’s also likely to be differences between models in how things are classified and the cost manager will need to clarify and understand the commonality between what at first feel like disparate things.

An information model is likely to contain three types of quantity. Quantities based on actual model components (with visible details) which you can explore through the model are the most obvious. Quantities may also be derived from model components (such as moldings around windows) that aren’t always visible. The third kind of quantity is non-modeled quantities (these include temporary works, construction joints etc.). Unless the construction phase is modeled then the design model will show, graphically, design quantities but not the construction quantities. A cost manager is likely to be skilled in picking up the quantities that aren’t solely based on model components.

One of the advantages of extrapolating cost from the information model is the fact that the data can be queried at any time during a project and the information that feeds cost reports is regularly updated. This ‘living’ cost plan helps teams design to budget and because cost managers are engaged from the start of a project this allows for faster, more accurate reporting of costs at the early stages of a project. Compare this to a traditional approach where a cost manager’s report may be updated a few times during the early stages of a project with completed designs only fully costed at the end of the project team’s design process.

The cost manager may have to get used to working earlier and more iteratively than in a traditional process but has just as important a role to play in overall project delivery.

3d-perspective-section-cardigan-street6D BIM (Project Lifecycle Information; Sustainability)

The construction industry has traditionally been focussed on the upfront capital costs of construction. Shifting this focus to better understand the whole-life cost of assets, where most money is proportionately spent, should make for better decisions upfront in terms of both cost and sustainability. This is where 6D BIM comes in.

Sometimes referred to as integrated BIM or iBIM, 6D BIM involves the inclusion of information to support facilities management and operation to drive better business outcomes. This data might include information on the manufacturer of a component, its installation date, required maintenance and details of how the item should be configured and operated for optimal performance, energy performance, along with lifespan and decommissioning data.

Adding this kind of detail to your information model allows decisions to be made during the design process – a boiler with a lifespan of 5 years could be substituted with one expected to last 10, for example, if it makes economic or operational sense to do so. In effect, designers can explore a whole range of permutations across the lifecycle of a built assets and quickly get an understanding of impacts including costs. However, it is at handover, that this kind of information really adds value as it is passed on to the end-user.

A model offers an easily-accessible and understood way of extrapolating information. Details that would have been hidden in paper files are now easily interrogated graphically. Where this approach really comes into its own is in allowing facilities managers to pre-plan maintenance activities potentially years in advance and develop spending profiles over the lifetime of a built asset, working out when repairs become uneconomical or existing systems inefficient. This planned and pro-active approach offers significant benefits over a more reactive one – not least in terms of costs.

Ideally the information model should continue to develop during the In Use phase with updates on repairs and replacements added in. Better yet, a myriad of operational data and diagnostics can also be fed in to inform decision making still further.

3D-Sydney-Opera-House7D (Operations and Facilities Management)

Studies indicate that over 90% of total building lifecycle costs are related to facility maintenance and operations. Real estate and facility managers are increasingly showing interest in using BIM in facility management.

Some of the highlights of effectiveness of utilizing BIM 7D include:

  • Preventative Maintenance Scheduling: BIM can be used to plan and track maintenance activities proactively and appropriately by using the information about the building structure and equipment used in the facility. This type of preventative maintenance activities will help improve building performance, reduce corrective maintenance and emergency maintenance repairs and increase productivity of maintenance staff.
  • Sustainability Analysis: BIM integrated with other analysis & evaluation tools are used to track building performance data, which can be compared with specified sustainable standards to identify the flaws in the building systems. Facility’s sustainability program can be improved to better match the sustainability goals.
  • Asset Management: Assets of a building consist of the physical building, its systems, equipment and surrounding environment. Asset management is essential in short-term and long-term planning for proper upkeep of building assets. The bi-directional Building Information Modeling (BIM) integration into asset management software can help in better visualization of assets and aid in the maintenance and operation of a facility.
  • Space Utilization Management: Facility professionals and department liaisons can utilize BIM to effectively manage, track and distribute appropriate spaces and related resources within a facility. BIM space management application turns out to be beneficial in planning renovation projects and future needs, allocating space for proper usage of each corner of the building and tracking the impact of proposed changes.
  • Disaster & Emergency Planning: BIM can provide critical building information to improve the efficiency of disaster response plans and minimize any risk. BIM can be integrated with building automation system (BAS) to display where the emergency is located within a building, to find possible routes to the affected area and to locate other dangerous areas within the building during such emergencies.

Sources & References:
https://www.autodesk.com/solutions/bim
https://geniebelt.com/blog/bim-maturity-levels

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

 


Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with @KimVierheilig

AECOM welcomed Kim Vierheilig, AIA, LEED AP BD+C as vice president and managing principal for our Design and Consulting Services New Jersey Buildings + Places practice in June of 2018. Kim brings 19 years of experience in the development and leadership of high-performing teams and has worked across the education, transit, hospitality and corporate commercial sectors. As managing principal for the New Jersey team, she will provide strategic oversight, management and direction for the region’s architecture; engineering; interiors; design + planning/ economics; strategy plus and asset advisory practices.

“In everything that we do, we create value,” says Kim. “Our focus is on design excellence and creating value by bringing the very best in interdisciplinary thinking to our clients and our communities. I’m thrilled to work with the talented team here at AECOM to develop effective, innovative and holistic solutions for our region’s most pressing challenges.”

Prior to joining AECOM, Kim most recently served as vice president for another firm where she managed the architectural, business development and marketing departments. Over the course of her career, she has partnered with clients across markets to deliver highly engaging environments. With clients such as Unilever, Four Seasons and Marriott Hotels and many K-12 and higher education institutions, she has built a portfolio of award-winning work and is widely recognized for her impact on the development industry. In 2017, Kim was named one of the Best 50 Women in Business by NJBIZ and received the Outstanding Woman Award from the Women Builder’s Council. She has also been recognized in the NJBIZ 40 Under 40 and honored with the 2016 Smart CEO Brava Award. From the New Jersey Institute of Technology, she holds a Master of Science in Management and a Bachelor of Architecture.

“Kim will lead [AECOM’s] teams in New Jersey to connect and creatively partner with our clients to develop the most impactful projects in the region,” says Tom Scerbo, vice president, Buildings + Places, New York metro regional lead. “Kim’s depth of experience leading teams to deliver complex, functional buildings and places affords our team strategic growth opportunities and brings tremendous value to our clients.”

 

ILMA INTERVIEW

When and why did you decide to become an Architect?    

Growing up an only child, I was always encouraged to participate in anything that was of interest. My weekends often involved household construction projects with my dad, which I enjoyed tremendously. At the age of ten, I decided I wanted to become an architect. Architecture was the natural choice of a profession that blended creativity and science.

What were some of the challenges of achieving your dream?     

As a woman in the architecture and engineering industry, where women make up only 15% of the job force, there were several challenges I faced to get to where I am today. In beginning of my career, I was the sole woman at the firm slotted as the office “receptionist,” where I answered phones and made coffee while designing and working on building projects. I was told I was not allowed to go into the field for construction site visits, even though my male counterparts were allowed, because I was “too much of a liability.” I realized that I could either complain about the situation or take what opportunities presented themselves and use these to better myself.  It wasn’t long until in addition to answering the phones, clients were calling to talk to me about projects, not just get transferred to a male colleague.  What I’ve learned is that in every bad situation there is something you can take from it to grow both personally and professionally.  Although eventually I left that firm, to find a company that more fully supported my development as an architect, there is no doubt my early work experiences made me a more passionate professional who wants to support the next generation of female architects.

How does your family support what you do?  

My family has always been extremely supportive of my career. As a partner of my firm, I often travel or attend evening receptions. I am fortunate enough to rely on my family’s support which has been a major factor in my success.

How do Architects measure success?    

I like to think I have a broader vision of what architects and engineers can bring to their communities through the design and construction industry. Almost all of the projects we work on have an impact on our communities; a successful project is one that fosters long-term relationships with the client and positively impacts the community.

What matters most to you in design?    

To me, designing a space that sparks creativity is most important. Using a holistic design approach, we focus on incorporating light, flexibility, choice, connection, complexity, and color into all of our designs.

What type of technology do you see in the design and construction industries?

Over the last few years, we’ve seen a significant shift in technology in the A/E/C industry. We are now incorporating virtual reality renderings and realistic walk-throughs of buildings or spaces, as well as, 3D printed models to allow our clients to better understand our design before construction begins.

How do you hope to inspire / mentor the next generation of Architects?   

I have been active in mentoring female architects on many different levels, from helping to fund architectural scholarships, to lobbying for change in the intern development process, assembling opportunities through design competitions to promote general learning, and serving as an individual mentor to numerous staff with her firm. I have partnered with various vendors and professional organizations to bring awareness about the challenges facing female architects. As such, I previously served as the American Institute of Architecture (AIA) Women in Architecture Chair for New Jersey to educate women on how to conduct business in a male-dominated industry by hosting seminars and providing networking opportunities with successful women speakers from various disciplines.

What advice would you give aspiring architects (K-12)? College students? Graduates?

I am an advocate and mentor for young women who wish to pursue a career in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. If I could give any advice to aspiring architects, I would say to break the barriers and follow your passion. This is a great industry with amazing potential.

Final Thoughts on How to Be Successful?

Continue to push forward every day by overcoming any hurdles that might face you and success will find you.

For more exclusive ILMA interviews click here.

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Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook