Production & Productivity: Part 4/12 of the 12 P’s–– A Guideline of Design for Architects and Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect #ilmaBlog #Architecture

A 12 part series on the 12 P’s Doctrine: A Guideline of Design for Architects & Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect; developed by Frank Cunha III, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

PART FOUR

Project Resource Allocation and Resource Management 

The resources of an organization consist of people, materials, equipment, knowledge and time. Organizations typically have limited resources; therefore, tradeoffs on what project resources are expended and when are made every day within organizations. A resource allocation plan is an important tool in effective management of scarce resources. The timing of the need of those resources can be and should be determined within the project schedules. A resource plan, which describes the type of resource needed and the timing of that need, is critical to effective resource management. As the project schedule changes, the resource plan must also be flexible enough to adjust as these changes occur.

Production – During Design

Construction drawings are produced by the design team, and go through several drafts during the design phase before the final draft becomes part of the contract, which is then sent out to be bid on by contractors. The winning contractor is bound by all of the contract documentation, including the construction drawings (click here for more information).

Construction Drawings:

  • Represent the building as a whole as designed
  • Are produced by the design team
  • In a traditional construction environment, are created before the project is bid on
  • Are official contract documents
  • Are subject to mark-ups, change orders, and redlining throughout the project

Shop Drawings:

  • Represent building components as designed
  • Are produced by the contractor and subcontractors
  • In a traditional construction environment, are created after the project is awarded and before construction begins
  • Are not usually official contract documents
  • May be subject to mark-ups, change orders, and redlining

As-Built Drawings:

  • Represent the building as a whole and all its components as actually constructed
  • Are produced by the contractor and subcontractors
  • Are produced after the project is complete
  • Are sometimes mandated by the contract but are not part of the contract documents
  • May be subject to change during later renovations, but represent the final documents upon completion of initial construction

Production – During Construction

Lean Project Delivery

  • Lean construction is a method of production aimed at reducing costs, materials, time and effort.
  • Minimize the bad and maximize the good.
  • The desired outcome would be to maximize the value and output of a project while minimizing wasteful aspects and time delay.
  • Beneficial for general and subcontractors
  • Communication drives the project
  • What goals should the project team be working toward?
  • What goals can be achieved reasonably?
  • What commitments has each last planner made?
  • Has each contractor or supplier met their schedule promises?
  • How has each company performed, and what could be changed or improved if any member of the project team fails to meet a milestone?

Prefabricated Construction

  • Material Management and Installation
  • Formal Quality Program
  • Efficient Coordination of Work
  • Diligent Supervision of Work
  • Standardized Internal Inspection and Tests
  • Third Party and Consultant Reviews
  • Improved Communications
  • Experienced Teams and Worker Skills
  • Quality Culture
  • Prefab rooms allow for simultaneous progress
  • Easy assembly for large projects
  • Streamlining onsite labor processes

Types of Prefab:

  • Panelized Wood Framing
  • Timber Framing
  • Concrete Systems
  • Steel Framing
  • Modular Systems

Benefits of Prefab

  • Eco-Friendly
  • Financial Savings
  • Consistent Quality
  • Flexibility
  • Reduced Site Disruption
  • Shorter Construction Time
  • Safety

Technology and Automation

Subscribe to our blog for updates on each of the 12 doctrines established by Frank CunhaIII, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

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Drone Technology

Drone-Technology-02Drones—also called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or unmanned aerial systems (UAS)—are most simply described as flying devices that do not carry a human pilot. They can be remotely piloted or they can pilot themselves based on pre-programmed instructions. They can be equipped with GPS, on board computers, hardware, electronics, sensors, stabilizers, auto-pilots, servo controllers, and any other equipment the user desires to install. Drones can resemble fixed-wing airplanes but more commonly take the form of quad-copters, that is, rotor-wing aircraft that can take off and land vertically. Most people know that drones can be equipped with infra-red cameras (still and video), license-plate readers, “ladar” (laser radar that generate three-dimensional images and can be seen through trees and foliage), thermal-imaging devices, or even sensors that gather data about weather, temperature, radiation or other environmental conditions. All of this can be used to generate images, recordings or data that design professionals eventually will want to use in their business.

Drones could be a valuable tool in construction, widening the spectrum of what’s possible in architecture, according to architect Ammar Mirjan.

“We can fly [drones] through and around existing objects, which a person couldn’t do or a crane couldn’t do,” explains Mirjan. They can be programmed to weave simple tensile structures in the air, for example.

Sources & References:

https://www.dezeen.com/2017/05/04/mark-dytham-interview-drones-uavs-bring-profound-change-architecture-cities/

http://www.theaiatrust.com/architects-guide-using-drones/

https://www.dezeen.com/2018/05/25/10-ways-drones-will-change-the-world/

How are aerial mapping drones helping architects?

Architects are exploring the many benefits of mapping drones for improving and expanding their businesses. Here are just a few examples:

The most popular application for small drones is aerial photography and video capture to track and share “before and after” progress over time.

Ability to securely collaborate on specific areas of interest with your team, contractors, and customers.

Tell the story of your project.  Show current and potential customers before and after fly-throughs of your job site so they can experience and appreciate the scale and impact of your work.

3-D point clouds with centimeter grade accuracy on progress, so you can get the precision updates you need to keep project approvals on time, without physically traveling to the site.

Get context for your project, plan your architecture with a full view of the surrounding area.

See 3D volumetrics so you know what you’re building on and can track progress.

Uses for Drones

  • Project documentation
  • Presentation + marketing
  • Architectural cinematography
  • Site analysis
  • Topographic mapping
  • Construction observation
  • Educational tool
  • Lead generation (working with Realtors)

Conclusion

According to an interview in Dezeen.com with Mark Dytham, architect and co-founder of Tokyo-based Klein Dytham Architecture, “Drones will transform the way buildings are designed, the way they look and the way they are used.

One way in which drones are proving to be a useful tool in architecture is through surveying. Due to their small size and relative ease of maneuverability, drones make an easy task of accessing difficult to reach places.

According to ArchDaily.com, “While using satellite imagery for site planning is common among architects, these visuals are often available in low resolution and produce less accurate data. Data collected by drones can completely eliminate the need for hiring land surveyors for creating topographic surveys. Instead, architects can use this information to build accurate 3D models of the terrain and site and import them directly into drafting and modeling software like Rhino.” In the past, architects would have relied on planes, helicopters, or satellite imaging for aerial footage.

Sources & References:

https://www.identifiedtech.com/blog/construction-drones/how-aerial-mapping-drones-can-help-architects/

http://residencestyle.com/the-use-of-drones-in-architecture-soars-to-new-heights/

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


Architecture Robots

Environmental Robots

Robots Revolutionizing Architecture's Future 003

Robots are increasingly being utilized in everyday life to monitor and improve our environments. For example, Researchers from theNational University of Singapore have created a bevy of robotic swans that are designed to monitor the quality of freshwater lakes and reservoirs – such as levels of dissolved oxygen or chlorophyll – while blending in with the natural environment. The robotic birds, fitted with a number of sensors, autonomously swim across the water’s surface using underbody propellers.

(Source: https://www.dezeen.com/tag/robots/)

Robots in Construction

060306_040_ProduktionCurtainWal_SilvanOesterle_023

At ETH Zurich, Gramazio & Kohler, an architectural partnership that is especially
known for its contribution to digital fabrication and robotic construction, taught at class
using a robot arm to lay bricks. This is the course as they describe it:

“If the basic manufacturing conditions of architecture shift from manual work to digital
fabrication, what design potential is there for one of the oldest and most widespread
architectural elements — the brick? Students investigated this question in a four-week
workshop, designing brick walls to be fabricated by an industrial robot. Unlike a mason,
the robot has the ability to position each individual brick in a different way without optical reference or measurement, i.e. without extra effort. To exploit this potential, the students developed algorithmic design tools that informed the bricks of their spatial disposition according to procedural logics. Positioning this way it was possible to draft a brick wall in which each of over 400 bricks took up a specific position and rotation in space. The students defined not the geometry of the wall, but the constructive logic according to which the material was organized in a particular temporal order, and which thus produced an architectonic form.”

Though robot arms are currently the most prevalent form of robotics in architecture,
architects and designers have begun to employ other, and sometimes more radical,
robotic strategies for design. Gramazio & Kohler, in collaboration with Raffaello
d’Andrea recently put together an exhibition titled ‘Flight Assembled Architecture’ for
which small quad-rotor helicopter bots assembled a 6m-tall and 3.5m wide tower out of
1500 polystyrene foam blocks in Orléans, France.

(Source:https://www.archdaily.com/336849/5-robots-revolutionizing-architectures-future)

Robots Revolutionizing Architecture's Future 002

Walmart filed five more patents for farming processes

The patent was one of six filed by Walmart, including several focused on automating agricultural processes. The supermarket chain also plans to use drones for spraying pesticides and monitoring crop conditions.

However artificial pollination has the bigger potential to significantly affect the company’s business.

According to research by Greenpeace, pollination by bees contributes $265 billion to the global economy. So, with the world’s bee population now in major decline, robotic alternatives could prove necessary to meet the global demand for food production.

Walmart isn’t the first to have invested in artificial-pollination technology. Brisbane-based artist Michael Candy recently unveiled his design for a device featuring 3D-printed robotic flowers, while a research lab in Japan recently became the first to successfully achieve pollination using a drone.

(Source: https://www.dezeen.com/2018/03/20/walmart-patent-autonomous-robot-bees-pollinating-drones/)

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook