A well documented set of construction drawings NOW decreases additional “hidden” construction costs LATER! by @WJMArchitect

By Bill Martin

A well documented project drawing set has a big impact on construction cost.

Less detail in the plan means more extra cost during the construction.

A well documented project gives the client maximum negotiating leverage with contractors during competitive bidding, this saves much more than the cost of the architects fee, reducing the total construction cost by thousands.

Listing out all of the fees and expenses and pushing to minimize each expense will not result in the lowest possible total cost.

There is an inverse relationship between construction cost and architects fee.

A well documented project drawing set may require more for an architects fee, but has a big impact on reducing total construction cost.

Learn more by clicking Bill’s website: WJM Architect

 

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We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post.  We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


How Can Architects Produce More Effective Construction Documents? by @FrankCunhaIII

Ask the Architect


by Frank Cunha III

What are some inherent problems with producing Construction Drawings?

  • Some details are not build-able.
  • Budget.
  • Schedule.
  • Inaccurate references and/or dimensions.
  • Missing information.
  • Coordination (or lack of).

How can we make the construction process better?

  • Make better CDs (drawings and specifications) upfront instead of waiting for a problem in the field to solve later.
  • Make drawings sufficient. Do not keep adding drawings, but coordinate the ones you have – in other words know when to say when. The drawings will never be as complete as you would like, but do not compromise the coordination of the drawings.
  • Remember: the drawings have to be sufficient to meet the required “standard of care.”
  • As time goes on the cost of a mistake rises (exponentially). It is important to avoid mistakes early on preferable before bid or construction phase.
  • Quality Control (QC) is too late at the end of CD phase or Construction phase.

What are some goals during the Construction Document phase?

  • Productivity (design with standards for efficiency when ever possible).
  • Thorough, user friendly (for the code officials, general contractor, and subcontractors).
  • Sufficient information.
  • Good coordination.
  • Consistency (look and feel of drawings).

How can Architect, Engineer, or Designer manage information more efficiently?

  • Have standard sheets and details (cover sheets, partition types, toilet details, window details, door schedule and details, finish schedule, millwork/casework schedule and details, sealant schedule, miscellaneous metals schedules, etc.)
  • Focus on “atypical” details.
  • Show dimensions, quantities on a single drawing to avoid conflicts. Do not repeat similar notes. Put all of typical notes on one detail and refer other details back to typical detail.
  • Follow principle of single statement – reduction of redundancy.
  • Be frugal: use time and resources wisely.
  • Avoid using similar scales (i.e., 1/8” and 1/16” OR 1/4” and 1/2”) whenever possible because information will be similar. Jump up or down at least 2 scales to avoid redundancy.
  • How are words and #’s perceived? Reference with words rather than #’s. Keep key notes straightforward and simple.
  • Wall section should be a “road map” like a plan where vertical dimensions and details are referenced. Avoid referencing typical conditions where possible.
  • Think of CDs as a story board (i.e., “defrag” your working drawings like you “defrag” you computer). Begin with the end in mind!
  • Include a schedule and instruction system at the front of the set to make it easier for the contractor to reference. Do not split up details that are related (i.e., keep plan, details, section details together not on ‘standard” sheets 20 drawings away from referenced drawing; keep references close, preferably on the same/next sheet when possible). This will make the subcontractor’s work easier and the construction process more efficient.
  • Save time by creating schedules for sealants and miscellaneous metals so you do not have to include them in every detail.
  • Coordinate, cross-reference, and remove redundancies from construction drawings and specifications.

How can an Architect, Engineer, or Designer save time on Typical Details?

  • Create a default: Select the most common type of door and state that is the typical door unless otherwise noted. Try to minimize the documentation of exceptions by creating different typical conditions. This way you only have to document the exceptions or atypical situations and avoid redundancy.
  • Try to figure out what is different that the default and illustrate those conditions.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post.  We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


Production & Productivity: Part 4/12 of the 12 P’s–– A Guideline of Design for Architects and Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect #ilmaBlog #Architecture

A 12 part series on the 12 P’s Doctrine: A Guideline of Design for Architects & Other People Who Want to Save the World and Design Like an Architect; developed by Frank Cunha III, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

PART FOUR

Project Resource Allocation and Resource Management 

The resources of an organization consist of people, materials, equipment, knowledge and time. Organizations typically have limited resources; therefore, tradeoffs on what project resources are expended and when are made every day within organizations. A resource allocation plan is an important tool in effective management of scarce resources. The timing of the need of those resources can be and should be determined within the project schedules. A resource plan, which describes the type of resource needed and the timing of that need, is critical to effective resource management. As the project schedule changes, the resource plan must also be flexible enough to adjust as these changes occur.

Production – During Design

Construction drawings are produced by the design team, and go through several drafts during the design phase before the final draft becomes part of the contract, which is then sent out to be bid on by contractors. The winning contractor is bound by all of the contract documentation, including the construction drawings (click here for more information).

Construction Drawings:

  • Represent the building as a whole as designed
  • Are produced by the design team
  • In a traditional construction environment, are created before the project is bid on
  • Are official contract documents
  • Are subject to mark-ups, change orders, and redlining throughout the project

Shop Drawings:

  • Represent building components as designed
  • Are produced by the contractor and subcontractors
  • In a traditional construction environment, are created after the project is awarded and before construction begins
  • Are not usually official contract documents
  • May be subject to mark-ups, change orders, and redlining

As-Built Drawings:

  • Represent the building as a whole and all its components as actually constructed
  • Are produced by the contractor and subcontractors
  • Are produced after the project is complete
  • Are sometimes mandated by the contract but are not part of the contract documents
  • May be subject to change during later renovations, but represent the final documents upon completion of initial construction

Production – During Construction

Lean Project Delivery

  • Lean construction is a method of production aimed at reducing costs, materials, time and effort.
  • Minimize the bad and maximize the good.
  • The desired outcome would be to maximize the value and output of a project while minimizing wasteful aspects and time delay.
  • Beneficial for general and subcontractors
  • Communication drives the project
  • What goals should the project team be working toward?
  • What goals can be achieved reasonably?
  • What commitments has each last planner made?
  • Has each contractor or supplier met their schedule promises?
  • How has each company performed, and what could be changed or improved if any member of the project team fails to meet a milestone?

Prefabricated Construction

  • Material Management and Installation
  • Formal Quality Program
  • Efficient Coordination of Work
  • Diligent Supervision of Work
  • Standardized Internal Inspection and Tests
  • Third Party and Consultant Reviews
  • Improved Communications
  • Experienced Teams and Worker Skills
  • Quality Culture
  • Prefab rooms allow for simultaneous progress
  • Easy assembly for large projects
  • Streamlining onsite labor processes

Types of Prefab:

  • Panelized Wood Framing
  • Timber Framing
  • Concrete Systems
  • Steel Framing
  • Modular Systems

Benefits of Prefab

  • Eco-Friendly
  • Financial Savings
  • Consistent Quality
  • Flexibility
  • Reduced Site Disruption
  • Shorter Construction Time
  • Safety

Technology and Automation

Subscribe to our blog for updates on each of the 12 doctrines established by Frank CunhaIII, AIA, NCARB, MBA.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

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Architects @WJMArchitect And @FrankCunhaIII Respond to ILMA Fan’s Questions “ASK THE ARCHITECT”

Greetings and hope you are staying cool this summer!  Here are some of our favorite responses from Bill and Frank to fans’ questions over the years.

  1. What Are The 10 Most Unusual Things You Have Been Asked to Design so far? Answered by @WJMArchitect
  2. What Should I look For When Hiring An Architect? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII
  3. Should I Hire an Architect for My Next Building Project? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII
  4. What are Your Favorite Architecture Books? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII
  5. How Do I Rebuild After a Superstorms or Hurricane? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII
  6. How Do Architects Calculate Their Fees? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII
  7. How Well Do You Know Your Building Materials Quantities? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII
  8. How Can Architects Generate More Work and Make More Money? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII
  9. How Can Architects Produce More Effective Construction Documents? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII
  10. What Do You Say to Young Students Considering a Career in Architecture? (Part 2) Answered by @WJMArchitect
  11. What Do You Say to Young Students Considering a Career in Architecture? (Part 1) Answered by @WJMArchitect
  12. How Does a Well Documented Set of Construction Drawings Save On Construction Costs? Answered by @WJMArchitect
  13. What is the the Blind Design Paradox in Architectural Design? Answered by @WJMArchitect
  14. What Are the TEN “Demandments” of Architecture? Answered by @WJMArchitect
  15. Do You Have an Architectural Design Manifesto? If So, Can You Share It With Us? Answered by @FrankCunhaIII

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

 

 

 

 

 


Start Here: Ready, Set, Go!

Welcome to by blog.  Over the past several years we have compiled knowledge from various authorities on the practice of architecture.  For those of you new to the site, we suggest you start here.  Enjoy!

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Jeff Venezia, AIA of @DIGroupArch

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Matthew B. Jarmel, AIA, MBA of @JarmelKizel

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Daniel D’Agostino, AIA of Plan Architecture

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Tim Witzig of @PKSBArchitects

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Toon Dreessen @ArchitectsDCA

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Felicia Middleton @UrbanAesthetics

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Enoch Sears @BusinessofArch

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with Jenny Roets @Arch_Girl

Exclusive ILMA Interview with Kurt Kalafsky, AIA @KurtKalafsky

Our Exclusive ILMA Interview with ADA Specialist, Marcela Abadi Rhoads @Abadi_Access

Exclusive ILMA Interview with Tara Imani, AIA @Parthenon1 (Part 2)

Exclusive ILMA Interview with Tara Imani, AIA @Parthenon1 (Part 1)

ILMA Features Aspiring Architect, Ian Siegel

ILMA Features Aspiring Architect, John Fernandes

Ask the Architect: An Exclusive Interview with Architect @FrankCunhaIII

Exclusive Interview: Meet Architect Arnie Untoria of @USA_Architects

Exclusive #EcoMonday Interview with Architect Bill Reed with host @FrankCunhaIII (Part 1 of 3)

Exclusive #EcoMonday Interview with Architect Bill Reed with host @FrankCunhaIII (Part 2 of 3)

Exclusive #EcoMonday Interview with Architect Bill Reed with host @FrankCunhaIII (Part 3 of 3)

The TEN “Demandments” of Architecture by @WJMArchitect

The 10 most unusual things we’ve been asked to design so far, What About You? by @WJMArchitect and @FrankCunhaIII

The Blind Design Paradox in Architectural Design by @WJMArchitect

A well documented set of construction drawings NOW decreases additional “hidden” construction costs LATER! by @WJMArchitect

What would you say to young students thinking about a career in #Architecture? by @WJMArchitect (Part 2)

What would you say to young students thinking about a career in #Architecture? by @WJMArchitect (Part 1)

My Architecture Manifesto: “Architecture Shall Live On” by @FrankCunhaIII

We would love to hear from you on what you think about these posts. We sincerely appreciate all your comments – and – if you like this post please subscribe to our blog and share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
FRANK CUNHA III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


Spring is the Perfect Time to Renovate Your Home and/or Office

Spring Ahead…. Spring is a perfect time to not only clean out your clutter – like the boxes in your garage you have been avoiding, but it’s an optimum time to meet with a design professional and consider different options to renovate your home.  Whether you are looking to enhance your home for yourself or to re-sell, an Architect can help you get the most out of your project.  Here are some quick sketches after 2 client meetings, where the clients were looking to update their kitchen.  Once approved we will move on to design development and construction drawings, which can be used for obtaining pricing from contractors and permits for construction.

SILVA-01 SILVA-02 SILVA-04 SILVA-05 SILVA-03

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


Exclusive ILMA Interview with Tara Imani, AIA @Parthenon1 (Part 1)

What better way to ring in the new year than to highlight one of our new designer colleagues discovered on social media?

Tara Imani, AIA, CSI, is a registered architect and owner of Tara Imani Designs, LLC, a solo practice in Texas, focusing on residential renovations, commercial space planning, and architecture. She has been blogging for over a year now, beginning with her debut blog post on AIA KnowledgeNet in October, 2010 where she explored what is now a commonplace question in the field of architecture: “Is the Architecture Profession in Need of a Makeover Despite the Upturn in the Economy?” (<—You can click on the highlighted title to link to the blog and join the conversation).

ILMA-Parthenon

Reconstruction of the Acropolis of Athens from NW: The entrance (Propylaia) to the Acropolis is at the bottom right, so that the first side of the Parthenon to be seen is the West side, the rear side.

Architect Q&A:

1)   When and why did you decide to become an Architect?

I discovered my love for architecture, interiors, and fine furnishings at a young age.  I enjoyed going furniture shopping with my mom and would find myself critiquing the various layouts in the showroom, wondering why the designers did it that way and wanting to try different layouts or do something similar in my own way. Maybe you’ve done this yourself, too, when you were growing up: rearrange the furniture in your parents’ home when they were out of the house for a while.  I did that to my mom on a few occasions and it met with much resistance.  That started at an early age, too- as soon as I was strong enough to move stuff around or coax my brother into helping. My passion for architecture started with house plans. After cleaning out the lower level hall closet and finding my parents’ stack of builder house plan books, I was hooked.  I began drawing my own floor plans and elevations, pinning them up on the wall in my bedroom.  My 5th grade bff (as the kids say nowadays) saw them and remarked at how much patience such detailed drawings would take; but to me it was sheer joy.  I never noticed the time. It was my dad who first told me I was going to be an architect.  And since he was an electrical engineer, he kept me well-supplied with proper drawing tools—sketch pads, quadrille paper, charcoals, pens, and pastels for rendering elevations. So I knew since 5th grade that I was going to be an architect.  In 8th grade, I did write in my journal that I wanted to be an interior designer.  So, I today, I am both—with a focus on Interior Architecture and space planning.

2)   What were some of the challenges of achieving your dream?

The biggest challenge has been overcoming fear.  The first fear was the looming board exam that I had heard mentioned whenever I told an inquiring adult what I wanted to be when I grew up.  So, along with my dream, I had a fear attached to it—of this monster test where I mistakenly believed I would need to bring the equivalent of my dad’s metal trunk full of books and reference materials to pass the exam. The other challenge was time management and the constant tension of wanting to spend time with loved ones (my boyfriend who became my husband) versus cranking out the project.  So, self-discipline and deferred gratification are two critical traits any architecture student will need to master early on if they want to be successful.

photo 1Gehry's Disney Concert Hall as captured by Photographer Mathijsvanden Boschhttp://500px.com/MathijsvandenBosch

Left: Tara’s website; Right: Gehry’s Disney Concert Hall as captured by Photographer Mathijsvanden Bosch.

3)   Any memorable clients or project highlights?

Every client and project has been a memorable experience and learning opportunity.  My most favorite firm to work for was Chris Abel Architects, AIA in Laguna Beach, California where we did high-end custom residential design for both new builds and renovations.  It was a beautiful place and location and everything about it was miraculous.  I worked for months helping Chris hand-draft a 5,000 sf beach home and additional guest house for a beachfront site in Kauai (using a now-ancient drafting arm- this was circa 1992).  The other memorable project I did with Chris was a two-story master bedroom suite and first floor pottery studio addition adjoining to an existing living room via an indoor atrium; it was a very eclectic home overlooking both the Pacific Ocean and the Aliso Viejo Canyon- the style can best be described as modern adobe exterior with an oriental interior motif (Chris designed a huge circle-shaped opening leading into the atrium which contrasted with the sloped adobe fireplace and otherwise rustic décor).  The most difficult part was getting the infamously strict Laguna Beach Design Review Board to approve the project and meet the height restrictions while ensuring the uphill next door neighbor’s view would not be blocked.  That was my first project to manage.  The client was very unique; she liked to wear (what we secretly referred to as) “leopard skinned bowling shoes” and during our morning jobsite meetings she preferred to drink her orange juice only after it’d been warmed in the microwave.  She was very astute and noted: “This is your first project, isn’t it?”  I didn’t quite know how to respond, so I simply acknowledged and clarified that no, it wasn’t my first one to work on, but yes, it was my first one to manage.  I knew I had a lot to learn about everything—especially about how to deal with clients and how to manage the bidding and construction process.  The latter point is a story for another day!

4)   How does your family support what you do?

Architecture can be an all-consuming business and few people can succeed while being loyal to their family (time-wise, etc.).  My father encouraged me to apply to architecture school and my mom enabled me to attend The Ohio State University by securing the necessary loans.  Otherwise, I was working as a bank teller for Buckeye Federal bank immediately following high school graduation.  The manager was upset when I left to go to school as they had put us new hires through three weeks of intense professional training at their special facility. So, two types of support are necessary—financial and emotional.  One without the other will not be sufficient. Over the years, family support has been touch and go.  But my dedication to architecture—whether consistent or not—remains my responsibility and no one else’s. In 1992, only five years after graduating from school, my husband and I made a decision to start a home health care and infusion therapy company with his sister, an RN.  It required us to move from southern California to Houston, TX.  My co-workers at Chris Abel’s firm thought I was crazy to move to the “armpit” of the south.  But work had been very slow and I was lucky to be employed at a time when many of my contemporaries were working outside the field.  It was a huge time of change, too, with firms transitioning to AutoCAD. I stayed in the healthcare business until 1998 and returned to architecture 6 months later.  I was able to find work because of the social connections I had made while studying for the licensing exams—so I always kept one foot in architecture while I was helping run the health care company.  And my family supported me by allowing me to take a paid 3-month sabbatical to study and pass the remaining exams.  I passed all except one- the design exam which became two computerized exams that I took and passed a few years later after our daughter was born.

5)   How do Architects measure success?

I can only speak for myself. When I think of a successful architect, I think of someone who has achieved a solid portfolio of built work spanning many years and whose buildings, designs, and/or residences resonate with their end-users.

6)   What matters most to you in design?

Design is a vast subject and covers so much.  I value beauty, good proportions, quality materials, and durability.

7)   What do you hope to achieve over the next 20-30 years?

That’s a long time.  Your question has prompted me to realize I really only think in terms of today and the next year—of course, I envision a great future for my family for many years. Professionally, I would like to continue in the area of tenant build-outs, space planning, and interior design.  I have been begging my husband for years to team up with me to renovate houses and I think he’s about ready to do so.

FLW Guggenheim NYC-Framed-Sml

Photo: Frank Cunha III

8)   Who is your favorite Architect? Why?

I can say that I am not an avid follower/groupie of any particular architect except that I love the designs of Andrea Palladio, the 14th c. Italian architect famous for his beautiful houses, symmetrical designs, and arched windows.  While a student, the theories of Finnish architect Alvar Aalto resonated with me— his inclusive programs (as opposed to Mies van der Rohe’s exclusive, stark plans). I also love many of Frank Lloyd Wright’s homes and especially his Guggenheim Museum and I love Frank Gehry’s Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles—I guess in part because I have been there and experienced it. These days, I’m revisiting various architects’ manifestoes to get fresh ideas and perspectives. There is one architect I admire for her sheer perseverance as much as her work: Julia Morgan who was the first female architect in California who started out as a Civil Engineer and who endured many trials and challenges on her path to becoming a successful Architect.  Ironically, her work was absent from the curriculum at OSU.

9)   What is your favorite historic and modern (contemporary) project? Why?

My favorite historic project is The Parthenon in Athens, Greece (built between 447 – 438 B.C); I admire it because it is such an iconic image exemplifying all that is beautiful and graceful in architecture.  It is the inspiration behind my twitter handle: @Parthenon1. My favorite modern (contemporary) project is the Denver Airport design by Fentress Architects; I love tent structures and am so intrigued at how well-integrated the forms are with the rest of the structure and successfully done despite the harsh climate of wind, snow, and ice.  It, too, is a beautiful iconic image with the white peaks of the tents rhythmically rising, echoing the mountains beyond.

10)   Where do you see the profession going over the next few decades?

This is a particularly challenging question and one that I see many of us in the Architecture/Engineering/Construction industry grappling to answer every day on social media sites- what I call the new agora or Roman forum- such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+.  To read many tweets, posts and forum discussion threads is to realize that we’ve all embarked on a mysterious expedition to define the Next architectural manifesto that will solve the world’s problems through innovative, sustainable design.  It feels very much like we’re on the precipice of a major breakthrough but we haven’t yet been able to put it into concise words or build with new forms and materials. There are many thought leaders I look to such as Rachel Armstrong from Britain with her Architecture 2.0; and Ed Mazria who conceived and developed Architecture+2030 (a program to train architects to systemically address CO2 emissions from buildings). Definitely sustainable design, adaptive reuse and retrofitting existing buildings to be more “green” (yikes, I can’t believe I’m using that word!) and high technologies are going to govern how architects practice for years to come. I recommend reading “Building (In) The Future- Recasting Labor in Architecture” compiled and edited by Phil Bernstein and Peggy Deamer—according to at least some of the essays, the future of architecture is going to be much more fabricated off-site and mechanized like the car industry.  IKEA is one example of this with their new pre-manufactured housing.  I personally don’t like this trend but am keeping an open mind toward it.  I don’t want to see the loss of art and craft and design in the move toward BIM (Building Information Modeling) – another buzzword among many others such as IPD (Integrated Project Delivery- how a project is funded for risk/reward-sharing in profits).

Click here to read Part 2 of this interview.

Tara’s Contact Info:

Tara Imani Designs 10333 Richmond Avenue, Suite 150 Houston, Texas 77042 Ph: (832) 723-1798 Fax: (832) 300-3230 Email: Tara@TaraImaniDesigns.com

San Giorgio Maggiore by Palladio

San Giorgio Maggiore by Palladio

Also Check Out:

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

2013 is going to be great ~ Sending you lots of love, hope, peace, health, happiness and prosperity! 

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


New Years Resolutions for Our Clients by @FrankCunhaIII

2013 is going to be great ~ Sending you lots of love, hope, peace, health, happiness and prosperity! Sincerely, Frank & the I.L.M.A. Team

2013 is going to be great ~ Sending you lots of love, hope, peace, health, happiness and prosperity!                               Sincerely, Frank & the I.L.M.A. Team

1) Pay more for design

Benefit to client:          Save more money on construction

Usually, given more time and money designers can provide Owners with a higher level of detail.  Ultimately, more detailed construction drawings result in less unknowns and contractor change orders.

2) Spend money upfront on construction

Benefit to client:          Save more money on monthly bills

Spending money upfront on higher-end, premium energy-efficient items can ultimately reduce operating costs.  Work with your Architect to see where you can get your highest return on initial investment.

3) Be flexible with the look and feel

Benefit to client:          Get what you pay for

Some times clients have preconceived notions on the outcome of their projects, which is fine (I like to collaborate), it actually helps us narrow down the look and feel of the project.  However, the professional has undergone many years of training in most cases 8-10 years before earning a license to practice Architecture.  If you are serious about your project you should stay flexible and strongly consider your Architect’s suggestions to help work toward achieving the best design possible. 

4) Engage your Architect for Extended Construction Administration Services

Benefit to client:          Only the Architect can interpret the construction drawings to ensure that the design intent of the project is being met; The additional cost for the Architect will likely result in overall savings to the Owner

Whether it’s a small project or a large one and whether it’s a new build, repair and restoration, or alterations and renovations it is important to have the continuous support of your Architect.  The money you spend on professional services will likely pale in comparison to the change orders that may result if the Architect is not involved.  Since the Architect has liability, the Architect will be the strongest advocate for the Owner while working with the Contractor to ensure that the intent of the design is upheld.

 5) Be Creative

Benefit to client:          Stand out from the competition

Sometimes it’s OK to blend in and sometimes it is not.  If you want to stand out and be noticed, try to let loose and work with your Architect to come up with something fresh and exciting.  Great design doesn’t necessarily have to cost more money.

6) Build a Team and Have “Charrettes”

Benefit to client:          Conventional design build methods creates tension between the Owner, Contractor, and the Design Team

Teamwork is extremely important in design and construction because getting a high-performance project requires that builders challenge conventional ways of doing things. Integrated design focusing on a holistic design approach can include what Builders and Architects call a “charrette,” a meeting or series of meetings bringing together the designer, builder, and subcontractors to discuss the project and swap ideas.  This approach is much more successful and can save the Owner money since the team is working towards a common goal instead of protecting each entity’s own interest.

7) Don’t Panic: Assign Accountability not Blame

Benefit to client:          Integrated design will help achieve greater results

Things can and usually do go wrong in any relationship. When a crisis arises the primary need is to correct the problem, not to affix blame. “Accountability is important—but the most important thing is to find the solution first. It’s best not to panic.”

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We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


The Blind Design Paradox in Architectural Design by @WJMArchitect

-by William J. Martin Architect 

Designing for the visually impaired has obvious implications for the aesthetic factor.

Designing a successful object or building is, in many cases, heavily dependent upon visual aesthetic. The Paradox of a designed building not needing a visual aesthetic, highlights the concept of “Econo-functional Aesthetic Balance“. The visually impaired building user is unable to appreciate the visual aesthetic and beauty in a visual aesthetic design factor. Focusing in on creating only visual beauty of form in this situation is not appropriate and is theoretically not relevant from the perspective of the building user.

The paradox is useful since many people tend to think of aesthetics as derived only from
visual beauty.

WJM-01

By separating the visual aesthetics from the other two factors, the “Blind Design Paradox” takes the focus off of the visual beauty of design and highlights the important role of
balancing all three factors.

Visual aesthetics alone does NOT constitute good design. The underlying point of this example demonstrates the role of the “Equilibrium of Appropriate Balance” when all three factors in the design interact.

WJM-Efab-Logo

In the “Blind Design Paradox”, the “E-FAB” between the factors is achieved not through visual beauty, but through the textural and acoustic design of architectural elements. In fact, the space could be visually unaesthetic, poorly proportioned, and devoid of any light or color. These normally important aspects of design are theoretically not important to a visually impaired building user since they cannot be visually perceived.

The visually impaired building user appreciates the beauty, not visually, but through the textures, temperature and acoustics of architectural elements while utilizing the function of the spaces designed for them.

WJM-02

The “Aesthetics Factor” is affected by refining it as the beauty of the physical texture and acoustical properties of the materials selected by the designer to create the aesthetic and balance the functional and economic requirements. In this example the primary effort is not put into creating the visual beauty of form. This factor utilizes tactile and acoustic beauty to create the aesthetics of the design.

The “Functions Factor” is affected by the design of space that needs to make use of material textures not visual material appearance. An example of this is flooring texture to communicate room type and function, wall textures to assist users in locating and orienting themselves, and even temperature and acoustic cues designed into the building. This factor considers the functional purpose of the building to make it perform for the visually impaired building user and balance with the aesthetic and economic factors.

The “Economics Factor” is affected by the re-allocating of economic resources to obtain the appropriate diversity of textured materials and acoustic cues necessary to realize the design and accomplish a balance with the function and aesthetic factors. This factor considers the reasonable availability of these materials or whether new materials or technologies will need to be developed. This should also reasonably consider the economic means of the user as defined by the resources allocated to accomplish the construction of the design.

It is important to understand that even in this theoretical example, the Formal Aesthetic Factor is not eliminated or even decreased in importance. It has shifted from visual beauty to tactile and acoustic beauty and still must be balanced with the other factors to achieve equilibrium and maximize the “Econo-functional Aesthetic Balance”. If the Three Factors are appropriately balanced the equilibrium created will transcend the sum of its parts.

This creates architectural beauty that is far more profound.

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We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post.  We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


For All Those Impacted by Superstorms and Hurricanes: Make sure an AIA Architect is part of your rebuild team!

Make sure an Architect is part of your rebuild team!

Recently, potential clients asked me to go see their home after it was impacted by hurricane Sandy.  Like many other houses in their community, their roof was severely damaged by a fallen tree.  Luckily, no one was injured.  I let them know that after the tree was removed I would return to evaluate the damage and make recommendations for repairs (with help from my structural consultant, if needed).  By the time the tree was removed, the cleanup crew was completed with their remediation work, and the contractor made his “temporary repairs” it was decided (without any input from an Architect) that minor repairs would be made.  (These decisions were made by the Owner with input from the Insurance Adjuster and Contractor.)

Then, I received the “follow up call” from the client asking me to certify the job — the local inspector requires a signed and sealed letter by a registered architect or professional engineer stating that the home is suitable for human habitation — I asked the potential clients why they started the repairs without any professional input and they said that everything happened so quick and they trusted their Adjuster and Contractor.  I let them know that I was unable to certify the project because of my lack of involvement in the project.  I was never given an opportunity to assets the damage after the tree was removed and before the Contractor started his repairs — how could I?  No professional can attest to repairs that are done without his or her knowledge.

I urge readers to let their friends and loved ones know that when they are rebuilding or repairing their houses or places of business or worship that they should consult a design professional – their local AIA Architect (start by going to aia.org where you can learn about the value of an Architect, and get a listing of local Architects).

Do not trust anyone that pretends to be an Architect or give false advice about your project.  Even if their advice is accurate they are not legally qualified to give advice or certify the repairs.  It is important to trust your team — your Contractor, Adjuster, local building inspectors, etc., but make sure you don’t leave the Architect out of the mix.

An Architect is responsible to safe guard the public safety and is qualified to certify that a space is suitable for human occupancy.

 

Funny thing is that this potential client wanted me to give him an opinion on what was done and whether it was safe to move his family back in.  I replied, that I do not have X-Ray vision.  If I was given an opportunity to see the space, I would have been able, as a qualified professional, to offer recommendations, provide construction drawings, observe the repairs and/or construction process, and ultimately certify that the work met my specification requirements,

I hope that this post is circulated to those in need, so they better understand the process– don’t leave the Architect out until the end.  The Architect will work with you to ensure that you are given the most thoughtful care with your investment, not just a quick fix.  (Think: Am I being given the best care my family deserves or am I just another claim/client on a list?  Will the repairs meet code?  Will the repairs hold up in the future?  Have I missed an opportunity to make improvements to better safe guard my family from future events? Who is responsible to protect the public safety and wellbeing?)

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post.  We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook


FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


How Do Architects Calculate Their Fees?

Ask the Architect


by Frank Cunha III

There are a few ways, but here are a few true and tried techniques that may work for you:

1.  Hours & Hourly Rates
Calculate the fee based on actual hours of service.  It is important that even if you are a single practitioner or small office that you calculate the fee based on different rates based on the work being done, even if by the same people.  For example, you should bill a higher rate to do “principal work” like reviewing and signing and sealing drawings and specs vs “field work” like documenting existing conditions or “designer work” like drafting details.  Have set prices for each level of service (so as not to under-bill or over-bill for different tasks).

2. Cost of the Construction Project
Take a percentage of the overall “brick and mortar” cost for a project.  The percentage may change as the size and scope of the project changes.  This is tricky as some clients may or not be ready for the soft costs associated with design fees.

3. By sheets
Take the number of construction drawings and put a “per sheet” price on it.  This works for simpler projects often referred to as “bread and butter” design work which can include repeat fit out work, small residential or commercial projects, or repeat work where you can anticipate the amount of effort required to successfully complete a project.  (Hint: You may want to have different prices established for sheet sizes and typical notes and standard details -vs- non-typical design work).

4. Combination of 1, 2. 3.
I like this method best.  Using the techniques developed above work backwards and forwards to check and cross check your fee.  If that doesn’t work, here’s one more technique that might be useful:

Image: (C) Ed Arno, New Yorker Cartoonist

5. SWAG
Take a “Scientific wild @$$ guess” based on your experience with projects of similar size and scope.  Often Architects will go back and look at previous projects to determine how many hours is required to complete a project.

Further Reading: Calculating the Architect’s Fee: Is There a Better Way? By Mike Koger, AIA, July 3, 2018

Good Luck!

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post.  We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


How Can Architects Generate More Work and Make More Money? by @FrankCunhaIII

Ask the Architect


by Frank Cunha III

Architects should be the leaders in the building industry, not just a consultant or a small part of a team. The simple truth is that taking on more work and taking greater risks is not for everyone. Owning a firm and taking on responsibilities beyond design is not an area you might want to dive into – or – it might be. Architects have the power to create their communities and shape their destiny. However, an Architect must be “proactive” instead of “reactive” and face larger risk in order to see larger rewards. The Architect is one of the first team members to have the ear of the client on a project and should not immediately hand the work over to other team members and lose a larger piece of the pie. Take a deep breath, understand the power you have at that moment and be creative about how you can become a stakeholder in the project. You can invest your fee in the project or go as far as become a stakeholder by financing the project or becoming one of the financiers of the project. Of course this philosophy is not for everyone. Not everyone is a risk taker so it is important to know yourself and the level of risks/rewards you are willing to accept.

Architects have the power to create their communities and shape their destiny. 

Architects should be”Builders” instead of reducing the scope of their work and being specialized players in the development of a project. One approach is to be the “Construction Manager” on the project. The beauty of this philosophy as that you can calculate and manage your risks and determine how to proceed by educating yourself and the client. Of course you must have the proper insurance for your venture. There is insurance available for almost anything for a price so it’s important to make sure that you speak to your insurance agent to make sure that you are properly covered before embarking on your venture.  As the Architect’s responsibilities shrink so does his/her control and his/her rewards. By simply taking on the role of a traditional Architect your fees are immediately reduced.  The Architect can even take on the role of cost estimator by creating a data base from recent schedule of values and contractor’s application for payments. Again, we have this knowledge and experience but are we using it to it’s fullest extent?

Another way to gain control of a project is to include a simple bar chart in the specifications and/or in the General Contractor’s contract.  Avoid submitting “builder sets” because complete drawings will help lower your risk dramatically. The developer’s/contractor’s vision of a project may not be the same as yours so make sure that all the important details are properly illustrated in the construction drawings regardless if it is a public bid or a developer’s builder set.

Another crucial step in becoming a larger stakeholder in the project is to know your Banker. You can do this by joining an advisory board for your local bank or having lunch with your banker. Bankers can be valuable in educating Architects on how the finances of a project work. Your Banker will probably tell you that he/she will need an appraisal, an estimate, sketches of the proposed project, and a history of your persona! assets to determine whether the project is even feasible. So take you Banker out to lunch and it will help you learn about current market information. Remember that Banker’s like to lend the bank’s money to professionals because they know that professionals are educated, responsible, and cautious, which means that the bank’s money will be safer.

It is important to understand OPM – other people’s money – and what it can do for you. So take your accountant out to lunch! It is important to learn how to use other people’s money to help you realize your project.  Investors and bankers allow the Architect to take on more risk thereby increasing their fees and cash flow. Architects have to start putting projects together so that they can have greater control over a project’s outcome. By making money and
by providing extra services for which the Architect is properly compensated it will grant the Architect access to creating and shaping a community.

There are 5 components to every Performa:
1. Buy (Acquisition and Closing Costs)
2. NE and Build
3. Soft Costs (Legal, accounting, contingency, surveys, insurance, utilities, operation and maintenance, etc.)
4. Marketing (Real-estate, lease broker, etc.)
5. Profit

Every Architect interested in generating more work, making more money, and having more control over his/her projects should learn to put a Performa together in addition to pretty sketches which can enhance one’s communities.  Since every situation is different it is important to have a good staff of consultants – lawyers, accountants, bankers, tax consultants, insurance representatives, etc. working with you. Get to know your key advisors (“Mastermind Group”) and pay them well because their work can greatly impact the success of your ventures. Having a great team of experts whom you trust is important to assure that you are minimizing your risks.

Harness your power as an Architect to become a Builder.

Unfortunately, these lessons are not taught in school, however, I do encourage you the reader to educate yourself about the possibilities of becoming more involved in a project. Harness your power as an Architect to become a Builder. As Architects take on more responsibility and start to make more money in their practices Architecture as a whole will prosper because with money comes power. With power comes the potential to focus on rebuilding communities and time to sculpt meaningful Architecture.
Do not stop learning how the Architect can take on more responsibility and attain larger rewards, remember RISK = REWARD and having control over a project is the key to success.

We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post.  We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


What would you say to young students thinking about a career in #Architecture? by @WJMArchitect (Part 2)

I was recently catching up with my buddy Billy Martin and I asked him to help me write about Architecture as a profession.

This is part two of what he had to say….

Question: What would you say to young students thinking about a career in Architecture?

by William J Martin

All of this is part of the plans or “blueprints” of a building to be built.

Architects need to be physically fit and mentally strong. While the building is being constructed, the architects are visiting, checking, walking on steel beams, crawling into foundations, climbing up on the roof. We do this to make sure everything fits together properly and safely.

Knowledge of sports and sports strategy is needed for the architects and workers to be acting as a coordinated team while assembling the building. Thinking ahead to the “next play” is part of the strategy of building a design from the plans. Very often millions of dollars are spent on buildings and architects are there to help get it done.

Schooling—-

Architecture is a licensed profession just like a doctor, a lawyer, or dentist, This means a person must go to and finish college, study, and pass tests given by the government,. Passing the tests shows the person has all the knowledge needed to provide architectural services safely and competently to the public. We don’t want our buildings to fall on people.

Studying hard and doing well in high school is a good start to becoming an architect. English, math, science, history, and especially art, drawing, and computer classes are courses in high school that will prepare you for architecture school. School plays and stage set building, playing sports, being physically fit is also good preparation.

After high school, apply to an accredited architecture college for admission to an architecture learning program. It takes a minimum of five years of college to complete the courses and receive a college degree in architecture.

After college, a 3 year, paid internship is required. You work in a real architect’s office and use the knowledge that was learned in college. You get paid for your valuable work as you learn more. The intern architect works with a licensed architect to learn how exactly to use the knowledge that was learned in the classroom. The internship involves doing everything an architect does, but the more experienced architect guides the intern architect to make sure things are done right.

After the internship is completed, passing the Architectural Registration Exam is the next step. Once you get a passing grade on that exam, the State you live in, will give you an official license to practice architecture and design buildings on your own. You can then start you own company and design buildings for people who need them.

Fallingwater or Kaufmann Residence designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1935 in rural southwestern Pennsylvania http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallingwater

Fallingwater or Kaufmann Residence – 2nd Floor Plan

Green design—

Many architects are now using a design point system called LEED. L E E D stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and is a green building rating system by which buildings are designed, constructed and rated for energy efficiency and environmental sensitivity. Buildings are designed and built using environmentally responsible construction materials and methods.

The importance of architecture as a profession–

Architects are more important then ever to our country and our environment. Right now architects around the world are using math, science and computers to design new kinds of buildings that will save energy and reduce damage to the environment. Everyone needs a home or building in which to live or work. Having buildings that use less electricity, less heating in winter, less air conditioning in summer, will use much less energy. That means power plants will produce less power and reduce pollution of the air and water. This is important to preserve the environment now and in the future.

(Click Here to read Part 1 of 2)

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If you like this post please share it with friends and family, especially those with children aspiring to become Architects.

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://www.fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT


What would you say to young students thinking about a career in #Architecture? by @WJMArchitect (Part 1)

I was recently catching up with my buddy Billy Martin and  I asked him to help me write about Architecture as a profession.

This is part one of what he had to say….

Question: What would you say to young students thinking about a career in Architecture? 

by William J Martin

I speak with students all the time about architecture as a profession.. ok …… 13-14 year olds………here goes…

Architecture as a profession–

The architectural profession has a long history. It goes back thousands of years to when the first humans put rocks and tree branches together and created shelter to protect and comfort themselves from nature’s cold, hot, snow, rain, earthquakes, etc.

Moving forward in time, ancient Egyptian architects created the Pyramids, Chinese architects created the Great Wall, Greek architects created the Acropolis and Parthenon, Roman architects created cities, aqueducts, coliseum, etc. and in the modern age, architects have created skyscrapers, sports stadiums, department stores, as well as homes.

Architecture is, first of all, an art. Artistic beauty, correct layout of the interior, heat and air conditioning, construction cost all need to be considered in designing buildings. In other words, It has to look “COOL” inside and out, not leak from the roof, not be too hot or cold, and not cost too much to build.

An architect has the knowledge and training to figure out how to blend all these things together.

Architects design buildings with all these things in mind. In many ways it is like solving a giant 3-dimensional puzzle. OR like playing a video game where the goal is to place and move objects and materials together to create a complicated machine that works for shelter and looks “COOLER” than anyone else’s.

Watercolor of Hagia Sophia by Unknown http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia

Architects use drawings, art, history, social studies, math, science, astronomy, sports, and computers to design and plan buildings.

Architects use art and drawings to plan out spaces and shapes that will look and feel “pleasing” to people. We use computers to help imagine what the building designs would look like and compare different shapes, colors, materials and ideas. We call this simply the “design process”.

Architects use mathematical calculations to determine safe beam and column sizes to build safe stable buildings. We use science and chemistry to design materials such as concrete, stone, wood. We use the science of water and pipes for plumbing. We use the science of electricity for wiring and lighting. We use astronomy to calculate the sun angles for window locations and daylighting inside buildings. We use the history of buildings that were built before, to design new buildings, like a bank with big columns in front. We also create completely new shapes and spaces to solve a new need for space that maybe did not exist before, like a golf driving range with 3 levels so more golfers can hit balls at the same time. We use writing, cameras, computers, video and other media to plan and explain ideas.

If you like this post please share it with friends and family, especially those with children aspiring to become Architects.

(Click Here to read Part 2 of 2)

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Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://www.fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.


@WJMArchitect Recognized for Green Architecture and Design

William Martin of Westwood received an award for his work on a Hillsdale home for a wounded soldier.

By Michelle Sartor

Westwood resident William Martin, who has been working as an independent architect since 1991, recently won an award for a sustainable home design he created for a wounded soldier.

The American Institute of Architects New Jersey Committee on the Environment (COTE) held its first competition this year to reward architects for outstanding sustainable designs. Martin submitted his project in the residential category and was named the winner in the COTE Top 10 Awards.

The design is for a home in Hillsdale that Martin did in conjunction with Homes For Our Troops. Wounded Iraq War Marine Corp. Cpl. Visnu Gonzalez lives in the home with his mother, Maria.

The home, which was constructed in 2009, has several green elements. It is LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Platinum Certified and is partially self-sustaining by creating its own renewable energy. The house has solar panels, geothermal heating and air conditioning, LED lighting and a mechanism for rain water capture and re-use.

Martin appeared on NBC News with Brian Williams for his efforts on the home. Click here to see the segment.

Click here to read the rest of the story.

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We would love to hear from you on what you think about this post. We sincerely appreciate all your comments.

If you like this post please share it with friends. And feel free to contact us if you would like to discuss ideas for your next project!

Sincerely,
Frank Cunha III
I Love My Architect – Facebook

FC3 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN, LLC
P.O. Box 335, Hamburg, NJ 07419
e-mail: fcunha@fc3arch.com
mobile: 201.681.3551
direct: 973.970.3551
fax: 973.718.4641
web: http://fc3arch.com
Licensed in NJ, NY, PA, DE, CT.