Architect’s Follow Up on the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris and Creating Safer Work Environments #UnderConstruction #Safety #Design #Architecture #LessonsLearned #SafetyFirst #Design #Build #Architect #ilmaBlogPosted: May 5, 2019
Follow Up on the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris and Creating Safer Work Environments
A few weeks ago on April 15th, 2019, a fire destroyed the roof and wooden spire of the Notre-Dame de Paris.
One of the most famous timber frame fires started just after midnight on the 2nd September 1666 in Pudding Lane. After burning for three days it destroyed nearly 90 percent of the inhabitants of London’s homes.
Possible Causes For Blaze
Although officials say that the investigation could last several weeks and nothing can be ruled out at this time, there is much suspicion that the blaze may have been started by a short-circuit near the spire.
The short circuit may have been possibly caused by electrified bells, or negligence by construction workers carrying out the ongoing renovations, a theory fueled by the discovery of cigarette butts.
Typical Sources of Ignition
Not related to the fire, but for a matter of reference, sources of ignition during construction may generally include: (1) Hot works – cutting, grinding, soldering, hot pitching; (2) Faulty electrical equipment – damaged sockets and equipment, service strikes, temporary supplies and halogen lighting; (3) Arson – works in high crime rate areas, protests and objections to the scheme, disgruntled employees or contractors; (4) Reactive chemicals; (5) Fire Loading; (6) Fire Spread – The Offsite Risks; (7) and Constrained sites. It will be interesting to see what the investigators are able to uncover in the following weeks.
According to the New York Times, the biggest renovation at the cathedral took place between 1844 and 1864 when the spire and the flying buttresses were rebuilt. The most recent overhaul, however, was meant to be understated. “The idea isn’t to replace every single stone. I don’t want to give this cathedral a face-lift,” said Philippe Villeneuve, the chief architect behind the project. The renovations, which are estimated to cost $150 million euro ($169 million) were still ongoing when the cathedral caught fire. Most likely something to do with the renovations of the cathedral led to its temporary demise.
The event, which occurred during holy week sparked an intense national debate on how the 856-year-old cathedral should be rebuilt. The French public will get a say on how the fire-ravaged Notre Dame cathedral will be rebuilt, officials say.
FYI: In a separate blog post, ILMA plans to do a write up on the current designs that are being suggested by Architects and designers around the world.
Construction Workers – Risk Management
As a matter of course, this heartbreaking occurrence give us pause to consider the threats that can occur during construction. Some risks to workers that need to be managed during construction and renovations include the following: (1) Working at Height; (2) Slips, Trips and Falls; (3) Moving Objects; (4) Noise; (5) Manual Handling; (6) Vibrations; (7) Collapses; (8) Asbestos; (9) Electricity; (9) Respiratory diseases. (Sources: Top 10 construction health and safety risks) and OSHA’s Top Four Construction Hazards); From the perspective of keeping the building safe during renovations and/or construction and saving lives, the following should be considered:
Building Safety – Risk Management
- Installation of sprinkler systems and fire detection systems early on in construction
- Availability of standpipes
- Commissioning the sprinkler system
- Access to fire extinguishers
- Make sure your fire detection and warning systems work
- Maintaining means of egress; Building compartmentation and protected fire routes in as the building is constructed
- Protect emergency escape routes
- Secure the site against arson
- Protect temporary buildings and accommodation
- Store equipment safely
- Design out hot works
- Keep the site tidy
- Keep project site and equipment safe
- No smoking
- Increase security for the site – CCTV, Full height hoarding, signage
- Engagement of local fire departments – to assess water pressure and accessibility
- Proper fire risk assessment that considers fire loading and fire separation distances
Learning From the Tragedy of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris
As timber is becoming increasingly more popular in high rises it is important to consider the past when managing the risks of projects utilizing wood framing. Although there are many studies and test on modern day timber/wood designs, it is still important to consider the risks that are present on any jobsite. Spending the money to do construction the right way will help reduce the inherent risks with construction – both to safeguard people as well as the buildings that we cherish.
For more information on my take on what happened at Notre Dame, please consider checking out the original articles: Personal Reflection on the Tragedy of April 15, 2019 at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris and What Makes Notre Dame Cathedral So Important as a Work of Architecture?.
- 16 Steps To Fire Safety On Timber Frame Construction Sites
- Reducing Risk in Timber Frame Construction
- Tall Timber Construction Code Is Still Thinking Small
- Notre-Dame Fire Investigators Focus on Short-Circuit and Cigarettes
- New photos show heartbreaking damage inside Notre Dame cathedral
- Before the Notre-Dame Cathedral caught fire, it was undergoing renovations
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