Bessemer Converter

A diagram of the Bessemer converter. Air blown through a lance inserted into the molten pig
iron creates aviolent reaction that oxidizes the excess carbon, converting the iron to steel.

The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron.
The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer, who took out a patent on the process in 1855.
The process was independently discovered in 1851 by William Kelly.
The process had also been used outside of Europe for hundreds of years, but not on an industrial scale.
The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron.
The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten.

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